Using international indices

ESCWA supports member States in streamlining economic planning and coordination across ministries and partners, and acts as regional policy advisor on the use of international indices for developing effective and transformational policies.

With ISPAR, ESCWA offers technical support in identifying strengths and weaknesses related to regional and international indicators towards more effective policymaking.

The selected indicators cover competitiveness, gender, business, technology and innovation.

View of Cairo. Photo: Sherif Moharram/unsplash
plus interface iconEconomic diversification, competitiveness

Doing Business Index

The Doing Business index provides objective measures of business regulations and their enforcement across 190 economies and selected cities at the subnational and regional level.

Launched in 2002 by the World Bank, the index looks at domestic small and medium-size companies and measures the regulations applying to them through their life cycle.

Procedures (number) - Men

A procedure is defined as any interaction of the company founders with external parties (for example, government agencies, lawyers, auditors, or notaries) or spouses (if legally required). Interactions between company founders or company officers and employees are not counted as procedures. Procedures that must be completed in the same building but in different offices or at different counters are counted as separate procedures.

Procedures (number) - Women

A procedure is defined as any interaction of the company founders with external parties (for example, government agencies, lawyers, auditors, or notaries) or spouses (if legally required). Interactions between company founders or company officers and employees are not counted as procedures. Procedures that must be completed in the same building but in different offices or at different counters are counted as separate procedures.

Time (days) - Men

Time is recorded in calendar days. The measure captures the median duration that incorporation lawyers or notaries indicate is necessary in practice to complete a procedure with minimum follow-up with government agencies and no unofficial payments. It is assumed that the minimum time required for each procedure is one day, except for procedures that can be fully completed online, for which the minimum time required is recorded as half a day.

Time (days) - Women

Time is recorded in calendar days. The measure captures the median duration that incorporation lawyers or notaries indicate is necessary in practice to complete a procedure with minimum follow-up with government agencies and no unofficial payments. It is assumed that the minimum time required for each procedure is one day, except for procedures that can be fully completed online, for which the minimum time required is recorded as half a day.

Cost - Men (% of income per capita)

Cost is recorded as a percentage of the economy’s income per capita. It includes all official fees and fees for legal or professional services if such services are required by law or commonly used in practice. Fees for purchasing and legalizing company books are included if these transactions are required by law. Although VAT registration can be counted as a separate procedure, VAT is not part of the incorporation cost.

Cost - Women (% of income per capita)

Cost is recorded as a percentage of the economy’s income per capita. It includes all official fees and fees for legal or professional services if such services are required by law or commonly used in practice. Fees for purchasing and legalizing company books are included if these transactions are required by law. Although VAT registration can be counted as a separate procedure, VAT is not part of the incorporation cost.

Minimum capital (% of income per capita)

The paid-in minimum capital requirement reflects the amount that the entrepreneur needs to deposit in a bank or with a third party (for example, a notary) before registration or up to three months after incorporation. It is recorded as a percentage of the economy’s income per capita. The amount is typically specified in the commercial code or the company law. The legal provision needs to be adopted, enforced, and fully implemented. Any legal limitation of the company’s operations or decisions related to the payment of the minimum capital requirement is recorded. In case the legal minimum capital is provided per share, it is multiplied by the number of shareholders owning the company. Many economies require minimum capital but allow businesses to pay only a part of it before registration, with the rest to be paid after the first year of operation.

Procedures (number)

A procedure is any interaction of the building company’s employees, managers, or any party acting on behalf of the company with external parties, including government agencies, notaries, the land registry, the cadastre, utility companies, public inspectors, and any external private inspectors and technical experts hired where needed.

Time (days)

Time is recorded in calendar days. The measure captures the median duration that local experts indicate is necessary to complete a procedure in practice. It is assumed that the minimum time required for each procedure is one day, except for procedures that can be fully completed online, for which the time required is recorded as half a day.

Cost (% of warehouse value)

Cost is recorded as a percentage of the warehouse value (assumed to be 50 times income per capita). Only official costs are recorded. All fees associated with completing the procedures to legally build a warehouse are recorded, including those associated with obtaining land use approvals and preconstruction design clearances; receiving inspections before, during, and after construction; obtaining utility connections; and registering the warehouse at the property registry. Nonrecurring taxes required for the completion of the warehouse project are also recorded. Sales taxes (such as VAT) or capital gains taxes are not recorded, nor are deposits that must be paid up front and are later refunded. The building code, information from local experts, specific regulations, and fee schedules are used as sources for costs. If several local partners provide different estimates, the median reported value is used.

Building quality control index (0–15)

The building quality control index is based on six indexes—the quality of building regulations; quality control before, during, and after construction; liability and insurance regimes; and professional certifications indexes

Procedures (number) - Electricity

Getting electricity / procedure(number): A procedure is defined as any interaction of the company’s employees or its main electrician or electrical engineer (that is, the one who may have done the internal wiring) with external parties, such as the electricity distribution utility, electricity supply utilities, government agencies, electrical contractors, and electrical firms. Interactions between company employees and steps related to the internal electrical wiring, such as the design and execution of the internal electrical installation plans, are not counted as procedures.

Time (days) - Electricity

Getting electricity / Time (days):Time is recorded in calendar days. The measure captures the median duration that the electricity utility and experts indicate is necessary in practice, rather than required by law, to complete a procedure with minimum follow-up and no extra payments. It is assumed that the minimum time required for each procedure is one day. Although procedures may take place simultaneously, they cannot start on the same day (that is, simultaneous procedures start on consecutive days). It is assumed that the company does not waste time and commits to completing each remaining procedure without delay. The time spent by an entrepreneur on preparing information to fill in forms is not measured. It is assumed that the company is aware of all electricity connection requirements and their sequence from the beginning.

Cost (% of income per capita)

Getting electricity / Cost (% of income per capita):Cost is recorded as a percentage of the economy’s income per capita and is exclusive of VAT. All the fees and costs associated with completing the procedures to connect a warehouse to electricity are recorded, including those related to obtaining clearances from government agencies, applying for the connection, receiving inspections of both the site and the internal wiring, purchasing material, getting the actual connection works, and paying a security deposit. Information from local experts and specific regulations and fee schedules are used as sources. If several local partners provide different estimates, the median reported value is used. In all cases the cost excludes bribes.

Reliability of supply and transparency of tariffs index (0–8)

Getting electricity / Reliability of supply and transparency of tariffs index (0–8):Doing Business uses the system average interruption duration index (SAIDI) and the system average interruption frequency index (SAIFI) to measure the duration and frequency of power outages in the largest business city of each economy (for 11 economies the data are also collected for the second-largest business city). SAIDI is the average total duration of outages over the course of a year for each customer served, whereas SAIFI is the average number of service interruptions experienced by a customer in a year.

Procedures (number) - Property

A procedure is defined as any interaction of the buyer, the seller, or their agents (if an agent is legally or in practice required) with external parties, including government agencies, inspectors, public notaries, architects, surveyors, and others.

Time (days) - Property

Time is recorded in calendar days. The measure captures the median duration that property lawyers, notaries, or registry officials indicate is necessary to complete a procedure. It is assumed that the minimum time required for each procedure is one day, except for procedures that can be fully completed online, for which the time required is recorded as half a day.

Cost (% of property value)

Cost is recorded as a percentage of the property value, assumed to be equivalent to 50 times income per capita. Only official costs required by law are recorded, including fees, transfer taxes, stamp duties, and any other payment to the property registry, notaries, public agencies, or lawyers. Other taxes, such as capital gains tax or VAT, are excluded from the cost measure.

Quality of land administration index (0–30)

The quality of land administration index is composed of five other indexes:the reliability of infrastructure, transparency of information, geographic coverage, land dispute resolution, and equal access to property rights. Data are collected for each economy’s largest business city.

Strength of legal rights index (0-12)

The strength of legal rights index measures the degree to which collateral and bankruptcy laws protect the rights of borrowers and lenders and thus facilitate lending. For each economy it is first determined whether a unitary secured transactions system exists.

Depth of credit information index (0-8)

The depth of credit information index measures rules and practices affecting the coverage, scope, and accessibility of credit information available through either a credit bureau or a credit registry.

Extent of disclosure index (0-10)

The extent of disclosure index has five components: • Which corporate body can provide legally sufficient approval for the transaction. • Whether an external body (an independent auditor, for example) must review the transaction before it takes place. • Whether disclosure by Mr. James to the board of directors or the supervisory board is required. • Whether immediate disclosure of the transaction to the public, the regulator, or the shareholders is required • Whether disclosure in periodic filings (for example, annual reports) is required.

Extent of director liability index (0-10)

The extent of director liability index has seven components: • Whether shareholders can sue directly or derivatively for the damage the transaction causes to the company. • Whether a shareholder plaintiff can hold Mr. James liable for the damage the Buyer–Seller transaction causes to the company. • Whether a shareholder plaintiff can hold other executives and directors (the CEO, members of the board of directors, or members of the supervisory board) liable for the damage the transaction causes to the company. • Whether Mr. James pays damages for the harm caused to the company upon a successful claim by the shareholder plaintiff. • Whether Mr. James repays profits made from the transaction upon a successful claim by the shareholder plaintiff. • Whether Mr. James is disqualified upon a successful claim by the shareholder plaintiff. • Whether a court can void the transaction upon a successful claim by a shareholder plaintiff.

Ease of shareholder suits index (0-10)

The ease of shareholder suits index has six components: • Whether shareholders owning 10% of the company’s share capital have the right to inspect the Buyer–Seller transaction documents before filing a suit. • What range of documents is available to the shareholder plaintiff from the defendant and witnesses during trial. • Whether the plaintiff can obtain categories of relevant documents from the defendant without identifying each document specifically. • Whether the plaintiff can directly examine the defendant and witnesses during trial. • Whether the standard of proof for civil suits is lower than that for a criminal case. • Whether shareholder plaintiffs can recover their legal expenses from the company.

Extent of shareholder rights index (0-6)

For each component of the extent of shareholder rights index, The index has six components: • Whether the sale of 51% of Buyer’s assets requires shareholder approval. • Whether shareholders representing 10% of Buyer’s share capital have the right to call for a meeting of shareholders. • Whether Buyer must obtain its shareholders’ approval every time it issues new shares. • Whether shareholders automatically receive preemption rights when Buyer issues new shares. • Whether shareholders elect and dismiss the external auditor. • Whether changes to the rights of a class of shares are only possible if the holders of the affected shares approve.

Extent of ownership and control index (0-7)

For each component of the extent of ownership and control index, . The index has seven components: • Whether the same individual cannot be appointed CEO and chairperson of the board of directors. • Whether the board of directors must include independent non-executive board members. • Whether shareholders can remove members of the board of directors without cause before the end of their term. • Whether the board of directors must have an audit committee. • Whether a potential acquirer must make a tender offer to all shareholders upon acquiring 50% of Buyer. • Whether Buyer must pay declared dividends within a maximum period set by law. • Whether a subsidiary cannot acquire shares issued by its parent company

Extent of corporate transparency index (0-7)

Extent of corporate transparency index For each component of the extent of corporate transparency index, . The index has seven components: • Whether Buyer must disclose direct and indirect beneficial ownership stakes representing 5%. • Whether Buyer must disclose information about board members’ primary employment and directorships in other companies. • Whether Buyer must disclose the compensation of individual managers. • Whether a detailed notice of general meeting must be sent 21 calendar days before the meeting. • Whether shareholders representing 5% of Buyer’s share capital can put items on the general meeting agenda. • Whether Buyer’s annual financial statements must be audited by an external auditor. • Whether Buyer must disclose its audit reports to the public.

Payments (number per year)

The tax payments indicator reflects the total number of taxes and contributions paid, the method of payment, the frequency of payment, the frequency of filing, and the number of agencies involved for the standardized case study company during the second year of operation . It includes taxes withheld by the company, such as sales tax, VAT, and employee-borne labor taxes.

Time (hours per year)

Time is recorded in hours per year. The indicator measures the time taken to prepare, file, and pay three major types of taxes and contributions: the corporate income tax, value added or sales tax, and labor taxes, including payroll taxes and social contributions.

Total tax and contribution rate (% of profit)

The total tax and contribution rate measures the amount of taxes and mandatory contributions borne by the business in the second year of operation, expressed as a share of commercial profit.The total tax and contribution rate is designed to provide a comprehensive measure of the cost of all the taxes a business bears.

Time to comply with VAT refund (hours)

Time is recorded in hours. The indicator has two parts: • The process of claiming a VAT refund. Time includes time spent by TaxpayerCo. • The process of a VAT audit. This is captured if companies with a request for a VAT cash refund due to a capital purchase are pooled into additional review in 50% or more of cases. Time includes time spent by TaxpayerCo.

Time to obtain VAT refund (weeks)

Time is recorded in weeks. Time measures the total waiting time to receive a VAT refund from the moment the request has been submitted.

Time to comply with a corporate income tax correction (hours)

Time is recorded in hours. The indicator has two parts: • The process of notifying the tax authorities of the error, amending the return, and making additional payment. Time includes time spent by TaxpayerCo. • The process of complying with a corporate income tax correction.

Time to complete a corporate income tax correction (weeks)

Time is recorded in weeks. Time includes the time to start an audit from the moment the tax authority has been notified of the error in the corporate income tax return, time spent by TaxpayerCo.

Time to export: Documentary compliance (hours)

Documentary compliance captures the time and cost associated with compliance with the documentary requirements of all government agencies of the origin economy, the destination economy, and any transit economies .The aim is to measure the total burden of preparing the bundle of documents that will enable completion of the international trade for the product and partner pair assumed in the case study.

Time to import: Documentary compliance (hours)

Documentary compliance captures the time and cost associated with compliance with the documentary requirements of all government agencies of the origin economy, the destination economy, and any transit economies .The aim is to measure the total burden of preparing the bundle of documents that will enable completion of the international trade for the product and partner pair assumed in the case study.

Time to export: Border compliance (hours)

Border compliance captures the time and cost associated with compliance with the economy’s customs regulations and with regulations relating to other inspections that are mandatory in order for the shipment to cross the economy’s border, as well as the time and cost for handling that takes place at its port or border. The time and cost for this segment include time and cost for customs clearance and inspection procedures conducted by other agencies.

Time to import: Border compliance (hours)

Border compliance captures the time and cost associated with compliance with the economy’s customs regulations and with regulations relating to other inspections that are mandatory in order for the shipment to cross the economy’s border, as well as the time and cost for handling that takes place at its port or border. The time and cost for this segment include time and cost for customs clearance and inspection procedures conducted by other agencies.

Cost to export: Documentary compliance (USD)

Documentary compliance captures the time and cost associated with compliance with the documentary requirements of all government agencies of the origin economy, the destination economy, and any transit economies .The aim is to measure the total burden of preparing the bundle of documents that will enable completion of the international trade for the product and partner pair assumed in the case study.

Cost to import: Documentary compliance (USD)

Documentary compliance captures the time and cost associated with compliance with the documentary requirements of all government agencies of the origin economy, the destination economy, and any transit economies .The aim is to measure the total burden of preparing the bundle of documents that will enable completion of the international trade for the product and partner pair assumed in the case study.

Cost to export: Border compliance (USD)

Border compliance captures the time and cost associated with compliance with the economy’s customs regulations and with regulations relating to other inspections that are mandatory in order for the shipment to cross the economy’s border, as well as the time and cost for handling that takes place at its port or border. The time and cost for this segment include time and cost for customs clearance and inspection procedures conducted by other agencies. T

Cost to import: Border compliance (USD)

Border compliance captures the time and cost associated with compliance with the economy’s customs regulations and with regulations relating to other inspections that are mandatory in order for the shipment to cross the economy’s border, as well as the time and cost for handling that takes place at its port or border. The time and cost for this segment include time and cost for customs clearance and inspection procedures conducted by other agencies.

Time (days) - Contracts

Time is recorded in calendar days, counted from the moment Seller decides to file the lawsuit in court until payment. This time includes both the days when actions take place and the waiting periods in between.

Cost (% of claim)

Cost is recorded as a percentage of the claim value, assumed to be equivalent to 200% of income per capita or $5,000, whichever is greater. Three types of costs are recorded: average attorney fees, court costs, and enforcement costs. "

Quality of judicial processes index (0-18)

The quality of judicial processes index measures whether each economy has adopted a series of good practices in its court system in four areas: court structure and proceedings, case management, court automation, and alternative dispute resolution.

Recovery rate (cents on the dollar)

The recovery rate is recorded as cents on the dollar recovered by secured creditors through judicial reorganization, liquidation, or debt enforcement (foreclosure or receivership) proceedings.

Strength of insolvency framework index (0-16)

The strength of insolvency framework index is based on four other indexes: commencement of proceedings index, management of debtor’s assets index, reorganization proceedings index, and creditor participation index.

Global Competitiveness Index

This index assesses the competitiveness landscape of 141 economies, providing unique insight into the drivers of economic growth in the era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. It aims to provide insights about economic growth, which remains crucial for improving living standards.

It also explores the relationship between competitiveness, shared prosperity and environmental sustainability, showing that there is no inherent trade-off between building competitiveness, creating more equitable societies that provide opportunity for all and transitioning to environmentally sustainable systems.

Business costs of organized crime

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent does organized crime (mafia-oriented racketeering, extortion) impose costs on businesses?” [1 = to a great extent, imposes huge costs; 7 = not at all, imposes no costs]

Homicide rate

“Intentional homicide” refers to unlawful death inflicted upon a person with the intent to cause death or serious injury. More details about the methodology can be found at https://dataunodc. un.org/crime/intentional-homicide-victims.

Terrorism incidence

This indicator has two components: the number of terrorismrelated casualties (injuries and fatalities) and the number of terrorist attacks over a five-year period, with each year assigned half the weight of the following year. Each component is normalized on a 0 to 100 scale, with 100 meaning “no casualty” and “no attack”, respectively, and then averaged.

Reliability of police services

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent can police services be relied upon to enforce law and order?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]

Social capital

Score on the Social Capital pillar of the Legatum Prosperity Index™, which assesses social cohesion and engagement, community and family networks, and political participation and institutional trust. The scale ranges from 0 (low) to 100 (high) This indicator measures national performance in three areas: social cohesion and engagement (bridging social capital), community and family networks (bonding social capital), and political participation and institutional trust (linking social capital). More details about the methodology can be found at http://www. prosperity.com/about/methodology.

Budget transparency

The index assigns countries covered by the Open Budget Survey a transparency score on a 100-point scale using a subset of questions that assess the amount and timeliness of budget information that governments make publicly available in eight key budget documents in accordance with international good practice standards. The eight key documents are: Pre-Budget Statement; Executive’s Budget Proposal and Supporting Documents for the Executive’s Budget Proposal; Enacted Budget; Citizens Budget; In-Year Reports; Mid-Year Review; Year-End Report; and Audit Report. For more information about the index and underlying survey methodologies, see https://www.internationalbudget.org/ open-budget-survey/methodology/.

Judicial independence

Response to the survey question “In your country, how independent is the judicial system from influences of the government, individuals, or companies?” [1 = not independent at all; 7 = entirely independent]

Efficiency of legal framework in challenging regulations

Efficiency of legal framework in challenging regulations

Freedom of the press

The index measures media independence, the quality of the infrastructure that supports the production of news, and information and acts of violence against journalists. It is based on two sources: (1) a database of the level of abuses and violence against journalists and media; and (2) an expert opinion survey on pluralism, media independence, self-censorship, transparency and infrastructure in each country. More details about the methodology can be found at https://rsf.org/en/world-press-freedom-index.

Burden of government regulation

Response to the survey question “In your country, how burdensome is it for companies to comply with public administration’s requirements (e.g. permits, regulations, reporting)?” [1 = extremely burdensome; 7 = not burdensome at all]

Efficiency of legal framework in settling disputes

Efficiency of legal framework in settling disputes

E-Participation

The E-Participation Index measures the use of online services to facilitate provision of information by governments to citizens (“e-information sharing”), interaction with stakeholders (“e-consultation”) and engagement in decision-making processes (“e-decision making”). More details about the methodology can be found at https://publicadministration.un.org.

Future orientation of government

Average of the responses to the following four Executive Opinion Survey questions: 1) “In your country, how fast is the legal framework of your country in adapting to digital business models (e.g. e-commerce, sharing economy, fintech, etc.)?” [1 = not fast at all; 7 = very fast]; 2) “In your country, to what extent does the government ensure a stable policy environment for doing business?”; 3) “In your country, to what extent does the government respond effectively to change (e.g. technological changes, societal and demographic trends, security and economic challenges)?”; and 4) “In your country, to what extent does the government have a long-term vision in place?”. For the last three questions, the answer ranges from 1 (not at all) to 7 (to a great extent).

Incidence of corruption

The index aggregates data from a number of different sources that provide perceptions of business people and country experts of the level of corruption in the public sector. More details about the methodology can be found at https://www.transparency.org/cpi.

Property rights

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent are property rights, including financial assets, protected?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]

Intellectual property protection

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent is intellectual property protected?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]

Quality of land administration

The index has five components: reliability of infrastructure, transparency of information, geographic coverage, land dispute resolution, and equal access to property rights. Data is collected for each economy’s largest business city. More details about the methodology can be found at http://www.doingbusiness.org/Methodology.

Strength of auditing and accounting standards

Response to the survey question “In your country, how strong are financial auditing and reporting standards?” [1 = extremely weak; 7 = extremely strong]

Conflict of interest regulation

The index assesses three dimensions of regulation that address conflicts of interest: 1) transparency of related-party transactions, 2) shareholders’ ability to sue and hold directors liable for self-dealing, and 3) access to evidence and allocation of legal expenses in shareholder litigation. More details about the methodology can be found at http://www.doingbusiness.org/Methodology

Shareholder governance

The index assesses three dimensions of good governance: (1) shareholders’ rights and role in major corporate decisions, (2) governance safeguards protecting shareholders from undue board control and entrenchment, and (3) corporate transparency on ownership stakes, compensation, audits and financial prospects. More details about the methodology can be found at http://www. doingbusiness.org/Methodology

Government ensuring policy stability

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent does the government ensure a stable policy environment for doing business?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]

Government's responsiveness to change

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent does the government respond effectively to change (e.g. technological changes, societal and demographic trends, security and economic challenges)?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]

Legal framework's adaptability to digital business models

Response to the survey question “In your country, how fast is the legal framework of your country adapting to digital business models (e.g. e-commerce, sharing economy, fintech, etc.)?” [1 = not fast at all; 7 = very fast]

Government long-term vision

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent does the government have a long-term vision in place?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]

Energy efficiency regulation

"The score is based on a country’s performance on 12 indicators: National energy efficiency planning; Energy efficiency entities; Information provided to consumers about electricity usage; EE incentives from electricity rate structures; Incentives & mandates: Industrial and Commercial End users; Incentives & mandates: Public sector; Incentives & mandates: Utilities; Financing mechanisms for energy efficiency; Minimum energy efficiency performance standards; Energy labelling systems; Building energy codes; Transport; and Carbon Pricing and Monitoring."

Renewable energy regulation

The score is based on a country’s performance in seven indicators: Legal framework for renewable energy; Planning for renewable energy expansion; Incentives and regulatory support for renewable energy; Attributes of financial and regulatory incentives; Network connection and use; Counterparty risk; Carbon Pricing; and Monitoring.

Environment-related treaties in force

This indicator measures the total number of international treaties from a set of 29 for which a state is a participant. A state is acknowledged as a participant whenever is status for each treaty appears as Ratified, Accession, or In Force.

Quality of road network

Score on the Road Connectivity Index, which measures average speed and straightness of a driving itinerary connecting the 10 or more largest cities that together account for at least 15% of the economy’s total population. This Index, developed by the World Economic Forum, comprises two elements: (1) a measure of the average speed of a driving itinerary connecting the 10 or more largest cities in an economy accounting for at least 15% of the economy’s total population; and (2) a measure of road straightness. The itinerary was not optimized and connects the cities from the largest to the smallest. Any leg involving a ferry was excluded from the average speed calculation. As a first step to the identification of cities to include in the itinerary, pairwise distances (“as the crow flies”) were calculated, and when the distance was less than 20 kilometres, the smallest city in the pair was excluded. The road straightness corresponds to the ratio of the sum of driving distances between each city in the journey to the sum of crow-fly distances between each city in the journey. For this component, legs involving a ferry were included. The APIs of Google Directions and Open Street Map were used to compute the itinerary.

Quality of road infrastructure

Response to the survey question “In your country, what is the quality (extensiveness and condition) of road infrastructure?” [1 = extremely poor—among the worst in the world; 7 = extremely good—among the best in the world]

Railroad density

Kilometres of railroad per 1,000 square kilometres of land .

Efficiency of train services

Efficiency of train services Response to the survey question “In your country, how efficient (i.e. frequency, punctuality, speed, price) are train transport services?” [1 = extremely inefficient, among the worst in the world; 7 = extremely efficient, among the best in the world] ."

Airport connectivity

Airport connectivity For each airport, the number of available seats to each destination is weighted by the size of the destination airport (in terms of number of passengers handled). The weighted totals are then summed for all destinations, then for all airports in the country to produce a score. A log transformation is applied to the raw value before converting it to the 0 to 100 score."

Efficiency of air transport services

Efficiency of air transport services Response to the survey question “In your country, how efficient (i.e. frequency, punctuality, speed, price) are air transport services?” [1 = extremely inefficient, among the worst in the world; 7 = extremely efficient, among the best in the world] "

Liner shipping connectivity

Liner shipping connectivity Score on the Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, which assesses a country’s connectivity to global shipping networks. The index uses an open scale, with the benchmark score of 100 corresponding to the most connected country in 2004 (China), Does not apply to land-locked countries. The index is based on five components of the maritime transport sector: the number of ships, their container-carrying capacity, the maximum vessel size, the number of services and the number of companies that deploy container ships in a country’s ports.

Efficiency of seaport services

Efficiency of seaport services Response to the survey question “In your country, how efficient (i.e. frequency, punctuality, speed, price) are seaport services (ferries, boats)?” [1 = extremely inefficient, among the worst in the world; 7 = extremely efficient, among the best in the world]. Does not apply to land-locked countries. "

Electricity access

Electricity access entails a household having initial access to sufficient electricity to power a basic bundle of energy services— at a minimum, several lightbulbs, task lighting (such as a flashlight), phone.

Electricity quality

Electric power transmission and distribution losses are losses in transmission between sources of supply and points of distribution and in the distribution to consumers, including pilferage.

Exposure to unsafe drinking water

Risk-weighted percentage of population exposed to unsafe drinking water. This indicator is reported as a summary exposure value (SEV): it measures a population’s exposure to unsafe drinking water, taking into account the extent of exposure by risk level and the severity of that risk’s contribution to disease burden. The indicator ranges from 0, when no excess risk for a population exists, to 1, when the population is at the highest level of risk.

Reliability of water supply

Access to basic services / Reliability of water supply Response to the survey question “In your country, how reliable is the water supply (lack of interruptions and flow fluctuations)?” [1 = extremely unreliable; 7 = extremely reliable]

Mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions

Mobile cellular telephone subs per 100 inh:The term “mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions” refers to the number of subscriptions to a public mobile-telephone service providing access to the public switched telephone network using cellular technology. It includes both the number of postpaid subscriptions and the number of active prepaid accounts (i.e. accounts that have been active during the previous three months). It includes all mobile-cellular subscriptions that offer voice communications. It excludes subscriptions via data cards or USB modems, subscriptions to public mobile data services, private trunked mobile radio, telepoint, radio paging, machine-to-machine (M2M) and telemetry services.

Mobile-broadband subscriptions

ICT use / Active mobile broadband subscription per 100 inh

Fixed-broadband internet subscriptions

ICT use / fixed-broadband subscriptions per 100 inh:The term “fixed-broadband subscriptions” refers to fixed subscriptions for high-speed access to the public Internet (a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)/IP connection) at downstream speeds equal to or higher than 256 kbit/s. This includes cable modem, DSL, fibre-to-the-home/building, other fixed (wired)-broadband subscriptions, satellite broadband and terrestrial fixed wireless broadband. The total is measured irrespective of the method of payment. It excludes subscriptions that have access to data communications (including the Internet) via mobile-cellular networks. It includes fixed WiMAX and any other fixed wireless technologies, and both residential subscriptions and subscriptions for organizations.

Fiber internet subscriptions

This indicator refers to the number of internet subscriptions using fibre-to-the-home or fibre-to-the-building at downstream speeds equal to or greater than 256 kb/s. This should include subscriptions where fibre goes directly to the subscriber’s premises or fibre-to-the-building subscriptions that terminate no more than two metres from an external wall of the building. Fibreto-the-cabinet and fibre-to-the-node are excluded

Internet users

ICT use / Percentage of individuals using the Internet:“Internet users” refers to the proportion of individuals who used the Internet in the last 12 months. Data are generally based on national household surveys where the percentage should reflect the total population of the country.

Inflation

Inflation is normalized in a U-shaped function to capture the detrimental effects of high inflation and deflation. Countries with inflation rates between 0.5% and 4% receive the highest possible score of 100. Outside this range, scores decrease linearly as the distance between the optimal value and the actual value increases. Because of the special conversion applied to this indicator, the ranking for this indicator is based on progress scores rather than raw values

Debt dynamics

Index measuring the change in public debt, weighted by a country’s credit rating and debt level in relation to its GDP This indicator is a category-based min-max normalization of the debt change. The debt change is the difference between the 2017 and 2018 of the debt-to-GDP ratio expected values. To transform the debt change value into a 0 to 100 score, each country was assigned to a specific category that determined the value boundaries. Categories are based on three criteria: general credit rating, government debt-to-GDP level for the year 2017, and country classification (1 if country is considered advanced, 0 otherwise, according to IMF’s classification). The general credit rating for each country is computed as the average of Fitch, Standard and Poor’s (S&P) and Moody’s credit ratings. Based on these criteria, 12 cases were identified: (1) if a country’s average rating is rated as “investment grade 1” and its debt-to-GDP level is less than 60%, its debt change is normalized 100;(2) if a country’s average rating is rated as “investment grade 1” and its debt-to-GDP level is less than 110%, its debt change is normalized to a score between 90 and 100; (3) if a country’s average rating is graded as “investment grade 1” and its debt-to-GDP level is greater than 110%, its debt change is normalized to a score between 80 and 90; (4) if the average credit rating is rated as “investment grade 2” and the debt level is lower than 110%, its debt change is normalized to a score between 70 and 80; (5) if the average credit rating is “investment grade 2” and the debt level is greater than 110%, its debt change is normalized to a score between 60 and 70; (6) if the average credit rating is “speculative”, the debt level is less than 110% and the country classification is “advanced”, its debt change is normalized to a score between 50 and 60; (7) if the average credit rating is “speculative”, the debt level is greater than 110% and the country classification is “advanced”, its debt change is normalized to a score between 40 and 50; (8) if the average credit rating is “speculative”, the debt level is less than 60% and the country classification is “developing”, its debt change is normalized to a score between 40 and 50; (9) if the average credit rating is “speculative”, the debt level is greater than 60% and the country classification is “developing”, its debt change is normalized to a score between 30 and 40; (10) if the average credit rating is “default”, the debt change is normalized to a score between 0 and 30; (11) if a country does not receive a credit rating from any rating agency and its debt level is below 60%, its debt change is normalized to a score between 40 and 50; and (12) if a country does not receive a credit rating from a rating agency and its debt is above 60% of GDP, its debt change is normalized to a score between 30 and 40. To determine the final value of the debt dynamics indicator within the assigned boundaries, we’ve calculated the normalized debt change, which ranges from a minimum observed value of 0 and the maximum observed value of 20. As part of the normalization process, we assigned a score equivalent to the minimum value of each bracket if the debt change was 20% or higher; assigned the maximum value of the bracket if the debt change was 0% or lower; and assigned a score between the two values if the debt change was between 0% and 20%.

Healthy life expectancy

Average number of years that a person of each gender can expect to live in full health, calculated by taking into account years lived in less than full health due to disease and/or injury.

Mean years of schooling

Average number of completed years of education of a country’s population aged 25 years and older, excluding years spent repeating individual grades.

Extent of staff training

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent do companies invest in training and employee development?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]

Quality of vocational training

Response to the survey question “In your country, how do you assess the quality of vocational training?” [1 = extremely poor among the worst in the world; 7 = excellent among the best in the world]

Skillset of graduates

Average score of the following two Executive Opinion Survey questions: “In your country, to what extent do graduating students from secondary education possess the skills needed by businesses?” and “In your country, to what extent do graduating students from university possess the skills needed by businesses?” In each case, the answer ranges from 1 (not at all) to 7 (to a great extent).

Digital skills among active population

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent does the active population possess sufficient digital skills (e.g. computer skills, basic coding, digital reading)?” [1 = not all; 7 = to a great extent]

Ease of finding skilled employees

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent can companies find people with the skills required to fill their vacancies?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent].

School life expectancy

This indicator assumes that the probability of a person being enrolled in school at any particular future age is equal to the current enrolment ratio at that age. More details about the methodology can be found at http://uis.unesco.org/en/glossary.

Critical thinking in teaching

Response to the survey question “In your country, how do you assess the style of teaching?” [1 = frontal, teacher based, and focused on memorizing; 7 = encourages creative and critical individual thinking]

Pupil-to-teacher ratio in primary education

Pupil-to-teacher ratio in primary education

Distortive effect of taxes and subsidies on competition

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent do fiscal measures (subsidies, tax breaks, etc.) distort competition?” [1 = distort competition to a great extent; 7 = do not distort competition at all]

Extent of market dominance

Response to the survey question “In your country, how do you characterize corporate activity?” [1 = dominated by a few business groups; 7 = spread among many firms].

Competition in services

Average of the scores of the three components of the following Executive Opinion Survey question: “In your country, how competitive is the provision of the following services: professional services (legal services, accounting, engineering, etc.); retail services; and network sector (telecommunications, utilities, postal, transport, etc.)?” In each case, the answer ranges from 1 (not at all competitive) to 7 (extremely competitive).

Prevalence of non-tariff barriers

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent do non-tariff barriers (e.g. health and product standards, technical and labelling requirements, etc.) limit the ability of imported goods to compete in the domestic market?” [1 = strongly limit; 7 = do not limit at all]

Trade tariffs

The weighted mean applied tariff is the average of effectively applied rates weighted by the product import shares corresponding to each partner country. Applied tariffs are considered to be the tariff rates applied by a customs administration on imported goods. They are the rates published by national customs authorities for duty administration purposes.

Complexity of tariffs

Tariff complexity is assessed on four criteria: tariff dispersion, the prevalence of tariff peaks, the prevalence of specific tariffs and the number of distinct tariffs. This index is calculated as the simple average of the normalized score of these four criteria.

Border clearance efficiency

Assesses the effectiveness and efficiency of the clearance process by customs and other border control agencies in the eight major trading partners of each country. The scale ranges from 1 (worst) to 5 (best). | 2018 More details about the methodology can be found at https://lpi.worldbank.org/about.

Service trade openness

"Score on the Services Trade Restrictiveness Index (STRI), which assesses the overall openness of the service sector of a country. The scale ranges from 0 (completely open) to 100 (completely closed). The STRI measures openness for five major services sectors (financial services, telecommunications, retail distribution, transportation and professional services) and three modes of supply (cross-border supply of services, supply of services through commercial presence or FDI and temporary presence of natural persons). "

Redundancy costs

Measures the cost of advance notice requirements and severance payments due when terminating a redundant worker, expressed in weeks of salary The average value of notice requirements and severance payments applicable to a worker with 1 year of tenure, 5 years of tenure, and 10 years of tenure is considered.

Hiring and firing practices

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent do regulations allow for the flexible hiring and firing of workers?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent] |

Cooperation in labour-employer relations

Response to the survey question “In your country, how do you characterize labour-employer relations?” [1 = generally confrontational; 7 = generally cooperative]

Flexibility of wage determination

Wage and salaried workers (employees) are those workers who hold the type of jobs defined as “paid employment jobs,” where the incumbents hold explicit (written or oral) or implicit employment contracts that give them a basic remuneration that is not directly dependent upon the revenue of the unit for which they work.

Active labour policies

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent do labour market policies help unemployed people to reskill and find new employment (including skills matching, retraining, etc.)?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]

Workers’ rights

Dimensions of labour protection include civil rights, the right to bargain collectively, the right to strike, the right to associate freely, and access to due process rights. The indicator does not consider firing regulations. Among countries rated as “D5” we distinguish between countries where workers have “non-access to rights” (Greece, Hong Kong SAR, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates) and countries experiencing “breakdown of institution” (Afghanistan, Libya) or murders (Guatemala). We assign a score of 10 to the former case and 3 to the latter. More details about the methodology of the Global Rights Index can be found at https://survey.ituc-csi.org/ITUC-Global-Rights-Index.html.

Ease of hiring foreign labour

Response to the survey question “In your country, how restrictive are regulations related to the hiring of foreign labour?” [1 = highly restrictive; 7 = not restrictive at all]

Internal labour mobility

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent do people move to other parts of the country for= professional reasons?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent] . This indicator does not apply to economies identified as city states: Bahrain, Brunei Darussalam, Hong Kong SAR, Kuwait, Malta, Qatar and Singapore.

Reliance on professional management

Response to the survey question “In your country, who holds senior management positions in companies?” [1 = usually relatives or friends without regard to merit; 7 = mostly professional managers chosen for merit and qualifications]

Pay and productivity

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent is pay related to employee productivity?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]

Female participation in labour force

Illustrates the ratio of the percentage of women aged 15–64 participating in the labour force as wage and salaried workers to the percentage of men aged 15–64 participating in the labour force as wage and salaried workers. Wage and salaried workers (employees) are those workers who hold the type of jobs defined as “paid employment jobs,” where the incumbents hold explicit (written or oral) or implicit employment contracts that give them a basic remuneration that is not directly dependent upon the revenue of the unit for which they work.

Labour tax rate

Labour tax and contributions are the amount of taxes (at any level—federal, state or local) and mandatory contributions on labour paid by the business, expressed as a percentage of commercial profits This measure includes government-mandated contributions paid by the employer to a required private pension fund or workers’ insurance fund. More details about this indicator can be found atThis measure includes government-mandated contributions paid by the employer to a required private pension fund or workers’ insurance fund. More details about this indicator can be found at http://www.doingbusiness.org/Methodology/Paying-Taxes./Methodology/Paying-Taxes.

Domestic credit to private sector

The total value of financial resources provided to the private sector, expressed as a percentage of GDP This indicator is computed as the sum of loans, purchases of non-equity securities, trade credits and other accounts receivable that establish a claim for repayment provided by financial corporations to firms and households.

Financing of SMEs

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent can small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) access finance they need for their business operations through the financial sector?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]

Venture capital availability

Response to the survey question “In your country, how easy is it for start-up entrepreneurs with innovative but risky projects to obtain equity funding?” [1 = extremely difficult; 7 = extremely easy]

Market capitalization

Calculated as the share price of all listed domestic companies multiplied by the number of their outstanding shares. Investment funds, unit trusts and companies whose only business goal is to hold shares of other listed companies are excluded. Data are endof-year values

Insurance premiums

Computed as the sum of life and non-life insurance premium volume divided by GDP. The premium volume is the insurer’s direct premiums earned (if property/casualty) or received (if life/ health) during the previous calendar year.

Soundness of banks

Response to the survey question “In your country, how do you assess the soundness of banks?” [1 = extremely low—banks may require recapitalization; 7 = extremely high—banks are generally healthy with sound balance sheets]

Non-performing loans

The ratio of the value of non-performing loans divided by the total value of the loan portfolio of all banks operating in a country. Defaulting loans are payments of interest and principal past due by 90 days or more. The loan amount recorded as nonperforming includes the gross value of the loan as recorded on the balance sheet, not just the amount that is overdue.

Credit gap

Computed as the difference between the latest “Domestic credit to private sector (as a percentage of GDP)” and its trend. Following the methodology from Bank of International Settlements, the trend value is calculated by applying a Hodrick– Prescott filter to the 15-year time series of the “Domestic credit to private sector (% of GDP)” indicator. More details about the methodology can be found at https://www.bis.org/publ/ qtrpdf/r_qt1403g.htm. Because of the special conversion applied to this indicator, the ranking for this indicator is based on progress scores rather than raw values.

Banks’ regulatory capital ratio

This indicator measures the capital adequacy of deposit takers. It is a ratio of total banks’ regulatory capital (shareholders’ equity, disclosed and undisclosed reserves, revaluation reserves, general provisions and other instruments) to total banks’ assets, weighted according to the risk of these assets. A log transformation is applied to the raw score before it is normalized to a 0-to-100 scale.

Gross domestic product

Gross domestic product (GDP) valued at purchasing power parity in billions of international dollars (constant 2011 prices)

Imports of goods and services

This indicator illustrates the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world, as a percentage of the country’s GDP. Imports include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called “factor services”) and transfer payments.

Cost of starting a business

Cost is recorded as a percentage of the economy’s income per capita. It includes all official fees and fees for legal or professional services if such services are required by law or commonly used in practice. Fees for purchasing and legalizing company books are included if these transactions are required by law. Although VAT registration can be counted as a separate procedure, VAT is not part of the incorporation cost.

Time to start a business

Time is recorded in calendar days. The measure captures the median duration that incorporation lawyers or notaries indicate is necessary in practice to complete a procedure with minimum follow-up with government agencies and no unofficial payments. It is assumed that the minimum time required for each procedure is one day, except for procedures that can be fully completed online, for which the minimum time required is recorded as half a day.

Insolvency recovery rate

The calculation takes into account the outcome—whether the business emerges from the proceedings as a going concern or the assets are sold piecemeal. Then the costs of the proceedings are deducted (1 cent for each percentage point of the value of the debtor’s estate). Finally, the value lost as a result of the time the money remains tied up in insolvency proceedings is taken into account. More details about the methodology can be found at http://www.doingbusiness.org/Methodology/Resolving-Insolvency.

Insolvency regulatory framework

The index is calculated as the sum of the scores on the commencement of proceedings index, management of debtor’s assets index, reorganization proceedings index and creditor participation index. More details about the methodology can be found at http://www.doingbusiness.org/Methodology/ResolvingInsolvency

Attitudes toward entrepreneurial risk

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent do people have an appetite for entrepreneurial risk?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]

Willingness to delegate authority

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent does senior management delegate authority to subordinates?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]

Growth of innovative companies

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent do new companies with innovative ideas grow rapidly?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]

Companies embracing disruptive ideas

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent do companies embrace risky or disruptive business ideas?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]

Diversity of workforce

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent do companies have a diverse workforce (e.g. in terms of ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, gender)?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]

State of cluster development

Response to the survey question “In your country, how widespread are well-developed and deep clusters (geographic concentrations of firms, suppliers, producers of related products and services, and specialized institutions in a particular field)?” [1 = non-existent; 7 = widespread in many fields]

International co-inventions

Computed as the sum of the patent family applications with at least one co-inventor located abroad, filed in at least two of the major five (IP5) offices in the World: the European Patent Office (EPO), the Japan Patent Office (JPO), the Korean Intellectual Property Office (KIPO), the State Intellectual Property Office of the People’s Republic of China (SIPO), and the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). Data is extracted from the PATSTAT database by earliest filing date and inventor country, using fractional counts, and expressed in applications per million population. A log transformation is applied to the raw score before it is normalized to a 0 to 100 scale.

Multistakeholder collaboration

Average score of the following three Executive Opinion Survey questions: “In your country, to what extent do people collaborate and share ideas within a company?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]; “In your country, to what extent do companies collaborate in sharing ideas and innovating?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]; “In your country, to what extent do business and universities collaborate on research and development (R&D)?” [1 = do not collaborate at all; 7 = collaborate extensively]

Scientific publications

The Index measures the number of published papers cited in other papers at least h times. The H-index reflects both the number of publications and the number of citations per publication. Only articles, reviews and conference papers are considered. The document universe is defined by those tracked by Scopus, an abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature: scientific journals, books and conference proceedings. A log transformation is applied to the raw score before it is normalized to a 0 to 100 scale.

Patent applications

Computed as the sum of the patent family applications filed in at least two of the major five (IP5) offices in the World: the European Patent Office (EPO), the Japan Patent Office (JPO), the Korean Intellectual Property Office (KIPO), the State Intellectual Property Office of the People’s Republic of China (SIPO), and the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). Data is extracted from the PATSTAT database by earliest filing date and inventor country, using fractional counts and expressed in applications per million population. A log transformation is applied to the raw score before it is normalized to a 0-to-100 scale.

R&D expenditures

Expenditures for research and development are current and capital expenditures (both public and private) on creative work undertaken systematically to increase knowledge—including knowledge of humanity, culture and society—and the use of knowledge for new applications. R&D covers basic research, applied research and experimental development.

Research institutions prominence index

The score is computed as the sum of the inverse ranks of all research institutions in a country included in the SCImago Institutions Rankings (SIR). It comprises private and public universities, governmental agencies, corporate entities and health institutes. A log transformation is applied to the raw score before it is normalized to a 0 to 100 scale. More details about the SIR methodology can be found at https://www.scimagoir.com/ methodology.php.

Buyer sophistication

Response to the survey question “In your country, on what basis do buyers make purchasing decisions?” [1 = based solely on the lowest price; 7 = based on sophisticated performance attributes]

Trademark applications

Number of international trademark applications issued directly or through the Madrid System by country of origin per million population. The residence of the first-named applicant is used to determine the origin of an application. When there are multiple applicants, only the first one is considered. This indicator is based on the concept of “equivalent count”. That is, an application filed at a regional IP office is counted multiple times according to the number of its members. A log transformation is applied to the raw score before it is normalized to a 0 to 100 scale

B2C E-Commerce Index

The UNCTAD B2C E-commerce Index measures an economy’s preparedness to support online shopping. The index consists of four indicators that are highly related to online shopping and for which there is wide country coverage

The extent to which people shop online in a country is highly correlated with the value of the index

Share of individuals using the Internet

All individuals who have used the Internet in the last 3 month are counted as Internet users. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc

Share of individuals with an account

The percent of population that ages 15+ and has an account ownership at a financial institution or with a mobile-money-service provider

Secure Internet servers

The number of distinct, publicly-trusted TLS/SSL certificates found in the Netcraft Secure Server Survey

UPU postal reliability score

UPU postal reliability index considers the reliability, reach, relevance and resilience of the postal service

Global Innovation Index

To take full advantage of innovation on national level, a mature ecosystem is needed. Developed by World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), the Global Innovation Index (GII) measures the innovation ecosystem on national level by covering 3 dimensions: innovation input, innovation output and innovation efficiency.

Poltical and operational stability

Index that measures the likelihood and severity of political,legal, operational or security risks impacting business operations.

Government effectiveness

Index that reflects perceptions of the quality of public services, the quality of the civil service and the degree of its independence from political pressures, the quality of policy formulation and implementation, and the credibility of the government’s commitment to such policies.

Regulatory quality

Index that reflects perceptions of the ability of the government to formulate and implement sound policies and regulations that permit and promote private-sector development.

Rule of law

Index that reflects perceptions of the extent to which agents have confidence in and abide by the rules of society, and in particular the quality of contract enforcement, property rights, the police, and the courts,as well as the likelihood of crime and violence.

Cost of redundancy dismissal

Sum of notice period and severance pay for redundancy dismissal (salary in weeks, averages for workers with 1, 5, and 10 years of tenure, with a minimum threshold of 8 weeks)Redundancy costs measure the cost of advance notice equirements and severance payments due when terminating a redundant worker, expressed in weeks of salary.

Ease of starting a business

Doing Business records all procedures officially required, or commonly done in practice, for an entrepreneur to start up and formally operate an industrial or commercial business, as well as the time and cost to complete these procedures and the paid-in minimum capital requirement.

Ease of doing insolvency

The ranking of economies on the ease of resolving insolvency is determined by sorting their scores. These scores are the simple average of the scores for the recovery rate and the strength of insolvency framework index. The recovery rate is recorded as cents on the dollar recovered by secured creditors through reorganization, liquidation, or debt enforcement (foreclosure or receivership) proceedings.

Expenditure on education

Total general (local, regional and central) government expenditure on education (current, capital, and transfers), expressed as a percentage of GDP.

Government funding per secondary student

Total general (local, regional and central, current and capital) initial government funding of education per student, which includes transfers paid (such as scholarships to students), but excludes transfers received, in this case international transfers to government for education (when foreign donors provide education sector budget support or other support integrated in the government budget). This is then expressed as a share of GDP per capita, in US$.

School life expectancy

Total number of years of schooling that a child of a certain age can expect to receive in the future, assuming that the probability of his or her being enrolled in school at any particular age is equal to the current enrolment ratio for that age.

PISA scales in reading, maths and science

PISA is the OECD’s (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) Programme for International Student Assessment. PISA measures 15-year-olds’ ability to use their reading, mathematics and science knowledge and skills.Results from PISA indicate the quality and equity of learning outcomes attained around the world.

Pupil-teacher ratio, secondary

The number of pupils enrolled in secondary school divided by the number of secondary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).A high pupil-teacher ratio suggests that each teacher has to be responsible for a large number of pupils. In other words, the higher the pupil/ teacher ratio, the lower the relative access of pupils to teachers.

Tertiary enrolment

The ratio of total tertiary enrolment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the tertiary level of education. Tertiary education, whether or not at an advanced research qualification, normally requires, as a minimum condition of admission, the successful completion of education at the secondary level.

Graduates in Science and engineering

The share of all tertiary-level graduates in natural sciences,mathematics, statistics, information and technology,manufacturing, engineering, and construction as a percentage of all tertiary-level graduates.

Tertiary inbound mobility

The number of students from abroad studying in a given country as a percentage of the total tertiary-level enrolment in that country.

Gross expenditure on R&D (GERD)

Total domestic intramural expenditure on R&D during a given period as a percentage of GDP. “Intramural R&D expenditure” is all expenditure for R&D performed within a statistical unit or sector of the economy during a specific period, whatever the source of funds

Global RnD companies, average expenditure, top 3

Average expenditure on R&D of the top three global companies. If a country has fewer than three global companies listed, the figure is either the average of the sum of the two companies listed or the total for a single listed company. A score of 0 is given to countries with no listed companies.

QS university ranking average score of top 3 universities

Average score of the top three universities per country. If fewer than three universities are listed in the QS ranking of the global top 1000 universities, the sum of the scores of the listed universities is divided by three, thus implying a score of zero for the non-listed universities.

Resarchers FTE

Researchers per million population, FTE. Researchers in R&D are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods, or systems and in the management of the projects concerned. Postgraduate PhD students (ISCED97 level 6) engaged in R&D are included.

ICT access

The ICT access index, previously part of the ITU ICT Development Index, is a composite index that weights five ICT indicators (20% each): (1) Fixed telephone subscriptions per 100 inhabitants; (2) Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions per 100 inhabitants; (3) International Internet bandwidth (bit/s) per Internet user; (4) Percentage of households with a computer; and (5) Percentage of households with Internet access.

ICT use

The ICT use index, previously part of the ITU ICT Development Index, is a composite index that weights three ICT indicators (33% each): (1) Percentage of individuals using the Internet; (2) Fixed (wired)-broadband Internet subscriptions per 100 inhabitants; (3) Active mobilebroadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants.

Government online service

The Online Services Index component of the E-Government Development Index is a composite indicator measuring the use of ICTs by governments in delivering public services at the national level.

online e-participation

The E-Participation Index (EPI) is derived as a supplementary index to the United Nations E-Government Survey. It extends the dimension of the Survey by focusing on the government use of online services in providing information to its citizens or “e-information sharing”,interacting with stakeholders or “e-consultation” and engaging in decision-making processes or “e-decisionmaking.”"

Electricity output

Electricity output

Logistics performance

Logistics performance: A multidimensional assessment of logistics performance, the Logistics Performance Index (LPI) ranks 160 countries combining data on six core performance components into a single aggregate measure—including customs performance, infrastructure quality, and timeliness of shipments. The LPI’s six components are: (1) the efficiency of customs and border management clearance (“Customs”); (2) the quality of trade and transport infrastructure (“Infrastructure”); (3) the ease of arranging competitively priced shipments (“International shipments”); (4) the competence and quality of logistics services (“Services Quality”); (5) the ability to track and trace consignments (“Tracking and tracing”); and (6) the frequency with which shipments reach consignees within scheduled or expected delivery times (“Timeliness”). The LPI consists therefore of both qualitative and quantitative measures and helps build profiles of logistics friendliness for these countries.

Gross capital formation

Gross capital formation is expressed as a ratio of total investment in current local currency to GDP in current local currency. Investment or gross capital formation is measured by the total value of the gross fixed capital formation and changes in inventories and acquisitions less disposals of valuables for a unit or sector, on the basis of the System of National Accounts (SNA) of 1993.

GDP per unit of energy use

Purchasing power parity gross domestic product (PPP$ GDP) per kilogram of oil equivalent of energy use. Total primary energy supply (TPES) is made up of production + imports - exports - international marine bunkers - international aviation bunkers +/– stock changes.

Environmental performance

These indicators provide a gauge at a national scale of how close countries are to established environmental policy targets. The EPI offers a scorecard that highlights leaders and laggards in environmental performance and provides practical guidance for countries that aspire tomove toward a sustainable future.

ISO 14001 environmental certificates

ISO 14001:2015 specifies the requirements for an environmental management system that an organization can use to enhance its environmental performance. ISO 14001 is intended for use by an organization seeking to manage its environmental responsibilities in a systematic manner that contributes to the environmental pillar of sustainability. ISO 14001 helps an organization achieve the intended outcomes of its environmental management system, which provide value for the environment, the organization itself, and interested parties.

Ease of getting credit

These scores are the score for the sum of the strength of the legal rights index (range 0–12) and the depth of credit information index (range 0–8). Doing Business measures the legal rights of borrowers and lenders with respect to secured transactions through one set of indicators and the reporting of credit information through another. The first set of indicators measures whether certain features that facilitate lending exist within the applicable collateral and bankruptcy laws. The second set measures the coverage, scope, and accessibility of credit information available through credit reporting service providers such as credit bureaus or credit registries. Although Doing Business compiles data on getting credit for public registry coverage (% of adults) and for private bureau coverage (% of adults), these indicators are not included in the ranking.

Domestic credit to private sector

Domestic credit to private sector” refers to financial resources provided to the private sector by financial corporations, such as through loans, purchases of nonequity securities, and trade credits and other accounts receivable that establish a claim for repayment. For some countries, these claims include credit to public enterprises. The financial corporations include monetary authorities and deposit money banks, as well as otherfinancial corporations where data are available (including corporations that do not accept transferable deposits but do incur such liabilities as time and savings deposits).

Microfinance institutions gross loan portfolio

Combined gross loan balances of microfinance institutions (current US$) in a country as a percentage of its GDP (current US$).

Ease of protecting minority investors

This ranking is the sum of the scores for the extent of conflict of interest regulation index and the extent of shareholder governance index. The extent of conflict of interest regulation index measures the protection of shareholders against directors’ misuse of corporate assets for personal gain by distinguishing three dimensions of regulation thataddress conflicts of interest: transparency of related-party transactions (extent of disclosure index), shareholders’ability to sue and hold directors liable for self-dealing (extent of director liability index), and access to evidence and allocation of legal expenses in shareholder litigation(ease of shareholder suits index).

Market capitalisation

Market capitalization (also known as “market value”) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding (including their several classes) for listed domestic companies. Investment funds, unit trusts, and companies whose only business goal is to hold shares of other listed companies are excluded.

Venture capital investors, deals

Thomson Reuters Eikon data on private equity deals, per deal, with information on the location of investment, investment company, investor firms, funds, and crowdfunding, among other details.

Venture capital recipients, deals

Applied tariff rate, weighted average

"Weighted mean applied tariff” is the average of effectively applied rates weighted by the product import shares corresponding to each partner country. Data are classified using the Harmonized System of trade at the six- or eight-digit level. Tariff line data were matched to Standard International Trade Classification (SITC) revision 3 codes to define commodity groups and import weights. To the extent possible, specific rates have been converted to their ad valorem equivalent rates and have been included in the calculation of weighted mean tariffs. Effectively applied tariff rates at the six- and eight-digit product level are averaged for products in each commodity group. When the effectively applied rate is unavailable, the most favored nation rate is used instead.

Domestic industry diversification

Average answer to the survey question: In your country, how intense is competition in the local markets? [1 = notintense at all; 7 = extremely intense

Domestic market scale

The domestic market size is measured by gross domestic product (GDP) based on the purchasing-power-parity (PPP) valuation of country GDP, in current international dollars (billions).

Knowledge-intensive employment

Sum of people in categories 1 to 3 as a percentage of total people employed, according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO). Categories included in ISCO-08 are: 1 Managers, 2 Professionals,and 3 Technicians and associate professionals.

Firms offering formal training

The percentage of firms offering formal training programs for their permanent, full-time employees in the sample of firms in the World Bank’s Enterprise Survey in each country.

GERD performed by business enterprise

Gross expenditure on R&D performed by business enterprise as a percentage of GDP

GERD financed by business enterpise

Gross expenditure on R&D financed by business enterprise as a percentage of total gross expenditure on R&D.

Females employed with advanced degrees

The percentage of females employed with advanced degrees out of total employed. The employed comprise all persons of working age who, during a specified brief period, were in one of the following categories: (1) paid employment (whether at work or with a job but not at work); or (2) self-employment (whether at work or with an enterprise but not at work).

University/industry research collaboration

Average answer to the survey question: In your country, to what extent do businesses and universities collaborate on research and development (R&D) [1 = do not collaborate at all; 7 = collaborate extensively]

State of cluster development

Average answer to the survey question on the role of clusters in the economy: In your country, how widespread are well-developed and deep clusters (geographic concentrations of firms, suppliers, producers of related products and services, and specialized institutions in a particular field)? [1 = non-existent; 7 = widespread in many fields]

GERD financed by abroad

Percentage of gross expenditure on R&D financed by abroad (billions, national currency)—that is, with foreign financing as a percentage of GDP (billions, national currency).

Joint venture/strategic alliance deals

Thomson Reuters data on joint ventures/strategic alliances deals, per deal, with details on the country of origin of partner firms, among others. The series corresponds to a query on joint venture/strategic alliance deals from January 1, 2019 to December 31, 2019, for a total of 10,535 deals announced in 2019, with firms headquartered in 122 GII participating economies. Each participating nation of each company in a deal (n countries per deal) gets, per deal,a score equivalent to 1/n (with the effect that all country scores add up to 10,535). The data are reported per billion PPP$ GDP.

Patent families filed in two offices

A “patent family” is a set of interrelated patent applications filed in one or more countries or jurisdictions to protect the same invention. Patent families containing applications filed in at least two different offices is a subset of patent families where protection of the same invention is sought in at least two different countries.

Innovation linkage

Intellectual property payments

Value according to the Extended Balance of Payments Services Classification EBOPS 2010—that is, code SH charges for the use of intellectual property not included elsewhere as a percentage of total trade. “Total trade” is defined as the sum of total imports code G goods and code SOX commercial services (excluding government goods and services not included elsewhere) plus total exports of code G goods and code SOX commercial services (excluding government goods and services not included elsewhere), divided by 2. According to the sixth edition of the International Monetary Fund’s Balance of Payments Manual, the item “Goods” covers general merchandise, net exports of goods under merchanting, and non-monetary gold.

High tech imports

High-technology imports as a percentage of total trade. High-technology exports and imports contain technical products with a high intensity of R&D, defined by the Eurostat classification, which is based on Standard International Trade Classification (SITC) Revision 4 and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) definition. Commodities belong to the following sectors: aerospace; computers & office machines;electronics; telecommunications; pharmacy; scientific instruments; electrical machinery; chemistry; non-electrical machinery; and armament.

ICT services imports

Telecommunications, computer and information services as a percentage of total trade according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)’s Extended Balance of Payments Services Classification EBOPS 2010, coded SI: Telecommunications, computer and information services.

Foreign direct investment net inflows

Foreign direct investment is the average of the most recent three years of net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock)in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors, and is divided by GDP.

Research talent in business entreprise

Full-time equivalent (FTE) researchers in the business enterprise sector” refers to researchers as professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods, and systems, as well as in the management of these projects, broken down by the sectors in which they are employed (business enterprise, government, higher education, and private non-profit organizations).

Patent applications by origin

A resident patent application refers to an application filed with an IP office for or on behalf of the first-named applicant’s country of residence. For example, an application filed with the Japan Patent Office (JPO) by a resident of Japan is considered a resident application for Japan.

PCT applications by origin

A PCT application refers to an international patent applications filed through the WIPO-administered Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT). The PCT system makes it possible to seek patent protection for an invention simultaneously in a number of countries by filing a single international patent application. The origin of PCT applications is defined by the residence of the first-named applicant.

Utility models by origin

terms and conditions for granting a utility model are slightly different from those for normal patents and include a shorter term of protection and less stringent patentability requirements. A utility model is sometimes referred to in certain countries as “petty patents”, “short-term patents”,or “innovation patents”. A resident UM application refers to an application filed with an IP office for or on behalf of the first-named applicant’s country of residence.

Scientific and technical publications

Articles are counted on a count basis (rather than afractional basis)—that is, for articles with collaborating institutions from multiple countries/economies, each country/economy receives credit on the basis of its participating institutions. The data are reported per billion PPP$ GDP.

Citable documents H index

The H-index expresses the journal’s number of articles (H) that have received at least H citations. It quantifies both journal scientific productivity and scientific impact. The H-index is tabulated from the number of citations received in subsequent years by articles published in a given year,divided by the number of articles published that year.

Labor productivity growth

Growth rate of real GDP per person employed (constant 1990 PPP$), average of three last available years. Growth of gross domestic product (GDP) per person engaged provides a measure of labor productivity (defined as output per unit of labor input). GDP per person employed is GDP divided by total employment in the economy. PPP$ GDP is Constant 1990 in U.S. dollars, expressed in 1990 GK PPP, Millions. While this is a relatively robust measure, it does not correct for part-time jobs as it merely counts people who are employed. Hence, GDP per person employed is somewhat underestimated in countries with a higher share of part-time workers, which are mostly OECD countries.

New business density

Number of newly registered corporations per 1,000 working-age (15–64 years old). The units of measurement are private, formal sector companies with limited liability.

Total computer software spending

Computer software spending includes the total value of purchased or leased packaged software such as operating systems, database systems, programming tools, utilities, and applications. It excludes expenditures for internal software development and outsourced custom software development.

ISO 9001 quality certificates

ISO 9001:2015 specifies requirements for a quality management system when an organization needs to demonstrate its ability to consistently provide products and services that meet customer and applicable statutory and regulatory requirements, and aims to enhance customer satisfaction through the effective application of the system, including processes for improving the system and assuring conformity to customer and applicable statutory and regulatory requirements.

High-tech manufacturing

High-tech and medium-high-tech output as a percentage of total manufactures output, on the basis of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) classification of Technology Intensity Definition.

IP receipts

Value according to the Extended Balance of Payments Services Classification EBOPS 2010—that is, code SH charges for the use of intellectual property not included elsewhere as a percentage of total trade. Receipts are between residents and non-residents for the use of proprietary rights (such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, industrial processes,and designs including trade secrets, franchises), and for licenses to reproduce or distribute (or both) intellectual property embodied in produced originals or prototypes (such as copyrights on books and manuscripts, computer software, cinematographic works, and sound recordings) and related rights (such as for live performances and television, cable, or satellite broadcast).

High Tech exports

High-technology exports minus re-exports (% of total trade):High-technology exports and imports contain technical products with a high intensity of R&D, defined by the Eurostat classification, which is based on Standard International Trade Classification (SITC).

ICT services export

Telecommunications, computer and information services (% of total trade) according to the Extended Balance of Payments Services Classification EBOPS 2010,

FDI outflows

Foreign direct investment” refers to the average of the most recent three years of direct investment equity flows in an economy. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, and other capital. Direct investment is a category of cross-border investment associated with a resident in one economy having control or a significant degree of influence on the management of an enterprise that is resident in another economy.

Production and export complexity

Trademark application class count by origin

A “trademark” is a sign used by the owner of certain products or provider of certain services to distinguish them from the products or services of other companies. A trademark can consist of words and/or combinations of words, such as slogans, names, logos, figures and images, letters, numbers, sounds, and moving images,or a combination thereof.

Industrial design by origin

Sum of Global Brand Values, top 5,000 as a percentage of GDP. Brand Finance calculates brand value using the Royalty Relief methodology, which determines the value a company would be willing to pay to license its brand as if it did not own it. The methodology is compliant with industry standards set in ISO 10668. ISO This approach involves estimating the future revenue attributable to a brand and calculating a royalty rate that would be charged for the use of the brand.

ICTs and business model creation

An “industrial design” is a set of exclusive rights granted by law to applicants for protecting the ornamental or aesthetic aspect of their products. An industrial design is valid for a limited period of time and within a limited territory. A resident industrial design application refers to an application filed with the IP office for or on behalf of the applicant’s country of residence."

ICTs and organizational model creation

Average answer to the question: In your country, to what extent do ICTs enable new organizational models (e.g.,virtual teams, remote working, telecommuting)

Global brand value, top 5,000

Cultural and creative services exports

World Trade Organization

National featue films produced

A film with a running time of 60 minutes or longer. It includes works of fiction, animation, and documentaries. It is intended for commercial exhibition in cinemas. Feature films produced exclusively for television broadcasting,as well as newsreels and advertising films, are excluded.

Entertainment and media market

The Global Entertainment & Media Outlook (the Outlook) is a comprehensive source of global analyses and five-year forecasts of consumer and advertising spending across 53 territories for 14 entertainment and media segments.

Printing publications and other media output

Printing, and reproduction of recorded media output (ISIC Revision 4 Division 18, group 181 with class 1811 and 1812 and group 182 with class 1820) as a percentage of total manufacturing output.

Creative goods exports

Total value of creative goods exports (current US$) over total trade.

Generic TLD

A generic top-level domain (gTLD) is one of the categories of top-level domains (TLDs) maintained by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) for use on the Internet. Generic TLDs can be unrestricted (.com, .info, .net, and.org) or restricted—that is, used on the basis of fulfilling eligibility criteria (.biz, .name, and .pro). Of these, the statistic covers the five generic domains .biz, .info, .org,.net, and .com.

Country code TLD

A country-code top-level domain (ccTLD) is one of the categories of top-level domains (TLDs) maintained by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) for use on the Internet. Country-code TLDs are two-letter domains especially designated for a particular economy, country, or autonomous territory"

Wikipedia yearly edits

Data extracted from Wikimedia Foundation’s internal data sources. Data reflects economies with more than 100,000 edit counts in 2019; The data exclude both contributions to the extent that is identifiable in the data sources. Data are reported per million population 15–69 years old.

Mobile apps creation

Global downloads of mobile apps, by origin of the headquarters of the developer/firm, scaled by PPP$ GDP (billions). Global downloads are compiled by App Annie Intelligence, public data sources, and the company’s proprietary forecast model based on data from Google play store and iOS App store in each country between January 1, 2019 and December 31, 2019.

Development Challenges Index

The Development Challenges Index measures shortfalls in three key dimensions, namely (i) quality-adjusted human development, (ii) environmental sustainability and (iii) governance. This index offers an analytical toolkit that could trigger policy dialogue to address these challenges at the global, regional and national levels.

Healthy life expectancy at birth, years (2019)

Healthy life expectancy at birth is the average number of years that a person can expect to live in full health by taking into account years lived in less than full health due to disease and/or injury. The selected minimum and maximum values are 20 and 75, respectively.

Expected years of schooling (2019)

Expected years of schooling is the number of years a child of school entrance age is expected to spend at school, or university, including years spent on repetition. The selected minimum and maximum values are 0 and 18, respectively.

Mean years of schooling (2019)

Mean years of schooling is the average number of years of education completed by a country's population (25 years and older) excluding years spent repeating grades. The selected minimum and maximum values are 0 and 15, respectively.

Harmonized test scores (2020)

The harmonized test scores provide a standardized measurement of learning outcomes across countries and time on the basis of scores obtained in a number of key international student achievement tests. The selected maximum value is 581.

Inequality Income

Gross national income (GNI) per capita (constant 2017 PPP$) (2019)

Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) GNI is gross national income (GNI) converted to international dollars using PPP rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. The selected minimum and maximum values are 100 and 75000, respectively.

Material footprint per capita (2017)

Material footprint is the attribution of global material extraction to domestic final demand of a country. The total material footprint is the sum of the material footprint for biomass, fossil fuels, metal ores and non-metal ores. The selected minimum and maximum values are 0 and 60, respectively.

PM2.5 exposure (2020)

PM2.5 exposure is measured using the number of age-standardized disability-adjusted life-years lost per 100,000 persons (DALY rate) due to exposure to fine air particulate matter smaller than 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5). The selected minimum and maximum values are 118.458 and 3961.869, respectively.

Household solid fuels (2020)

Household solid fuels is measured using the number of age-standardized disability-adjusted life-years lost per 100,000 persons (DALY rate) due to exposure to household air pollution (HAP) from the use of household solid fuels. The selected minimum and maximum values are 0.8433 and 10588.0738, respectively.

Ozone exposure (2020)

Ozone exposure is measured using the number of age-standardized disability-adjusted life-years lost per 100,000 persons (DALY rate) due to exposure to ground-level ozone pollution. The selected minimum and maximum values are 0.8278 and 245.4382, respectively.

Unsafe sanitation (2020)

Unsafe sanitation is measured using the number of age-standardized disability-adjusted life-years lost per 100,000 persons (DALY rate) due to their exposure to inadequate sanitation facilities. The selected minimum and maximum values are 1.6145 and 4439.9447, respectively.

Unsafe drinking water (2020)

"Unsafe drinking water is measured using the number of age-standardized disability-adjusted life-years lost per 100,000 persons (DALY rate) due to exposure to unsafe drinking water. The selected minimum and maximum values are 2.3585 and 5889.3255, respectively."

Lead exposure (2020)

Lead exposure is measured using the number of age-standardized disability-adjusted life-years lost per 100,000 persons (DALY rate) due to lead contamination in the environment. The selected minimum and maximum values are 23.323 and 1389.7858, respectively.

Carbon Dioxide (C02) emissions per capita (production) (2018)

Total carbon dioxide emissions produced as a consequence of human activities (use of coal, oil and gas for combustion and industrial processes, gas flaring and cement manufacture), divided by midyear population. The selected minimum and maximum values are 0 and 25, respectively.

Energy efficiency (megajoules per USD constant 2011 PPP GDP) (2017)

Energy efficiency (or energy intensity) is the energy supplied to the economy per unit value of economic output. The selected minimum and maximum values are 0.11 and 12, respectively.

Controlled solid waste (2020)

Controlled solid waste refers to the proportion of household and commercial waste generated in a country that is collected and treated in a manner that controls environmental risks. This metric counts waste as “controlled” if it is treated through recycling, composting, anaerobic digestion, incineration, or disposed of in a sanitary landfill. The selected minimum and maximum values are 0 and 1, respectively.

Transparent Laws With Predictable Enforcement (2020)

Transparent laws with predictable enforcement focuses on the extent to which the laws of the land are clear, well publicized, coherent (consistent with each other), relatively stable from year to year, and enforced in a predictable manner. The selected minimum and maximum values are -3.635 and 3.828, respectively.

Executive Oversight (2020)

Executive oversight focuses on how likely it is that a body other than the legislature, such as a comptroller general, general prosecutor, or ombudsman, would question or investigate executive branch officials and issue an unfavorable decision or report if they were engaged in unconstitutional, illegal, or unethical activity. The selected minimum and maximum values are -2.6 and 3.362, respectively.

Judicial Accountability (2020)

Judicial accountability focuses on how often judges are removed from their posts or otherwise disciplined when they are found responsible for serious misconduct. The selected minimum and maximum values are -2.595 amd 3.615, respectively.

Access to Justice index (2020)

Rigorous and Impartial Public Administration (2020)

Rigorous and impartial public administration focuses on the extent to which public officials generally abide by the law and treat like cases alike, or conversely, the extent to which public administration is characterized by arbitrariness and biases (i.e., nepotism, cronyism, or discrimination). The selected minimum and maximum values are -3.752 and 4.006, respectively.

CSO consultation (2020)

CSO consultation focuses on whether major civil society organizations (CSOs) are routinely consulted by policymakers on policies relevant to their members. The selected minimum and maximum values are -2.476 and 3.62, respectively.

CSO participatory environment (2020)

"CSO participatory environment focuses on the involvement of people in civil society organizations (CSOs). The selected minimum and maximum values are -3.325 and 3.178, respectively."

Government effectiveness (2020)

Government effectiveness captures perceptions of the quality of public services, the quality of the civil service and the degree of its independence from political pressures, the quality of policy formulation and implementation, and the credibility of the government's commitment to such policies. The selected minimum and maximum values are -2.48 and 2.44, respectively.

plus interface iconGender, Inequality and Gaps

Global Gender Gap Index

Gender parity has a fundamental bearing on whether or not economies and societies thrive. Developing and deploying one-half of the world’s available talent has a huge bearing on the growth, competitiveness and future-readiness of economies and businesses worldwide.

The index’s rankings, produced by WEF, offer an effective means to benchmark progress. They are designed to create global awareness of the challenges that gender gaps pose, as well as the opportunities that emerge when action is taken to reduce them.

Labour force participation rate

Proportion of a country’s working-age (15–64) female population that engages actively in the labour market, either by working or looking for work. (i.e. ratio of the number of women participating in the labour force to total labour force). Labour force data doesn’t take into account workers employed abroad. It includes ILO estimates for missing data.

Wage equality for similar work

Response to the survey question, “In your country, for similar work, to what extent are wages for women equal to those of men?” (1 = not at all, significantly below those of men; 7 = fully, equal to those of men).

Estimated earned income

The estimated female earned income is a proxy for how much command women have over a country’s economic resources. For each country, it is computed using female and male shares of the economically active population, the ratio of the female to male wages (both sourced from (both indicators are sourced from ILO), gross domestic product valued at constant 2017 international dollars (IMF), and female and male shares of population (World Bank). The methodology used to compute this indicator is adapted from the methodology developed by the United Nations Development Programme’s Human Development Report Office for computing the Gender Development Index (UNDP, 2020, page 6-7). Female and male wage measures used in the computation of the gender wage ratio correspond to the mean nominal monthly earnings of female and male employees, respectively. In the absence of wage data, a gender wage ratio of 0.75 is used in the computation of the wage bill. ILO’s measure of earning corresponds to the mean of monthly earnings of all employees in nominal terms. The earnings of employees relate to the gross remuneration in cash and in kind paid to employees, as a rule at regular intervals, for time worked or work done together with remuneration for time not worked, such as annual vacation, other type of paid leave or holidays. Earnings exclude employers’ contributions in respect of their employees paid to social security and pension schemes and also the benefits received estimated average annual earned income per capita in constant 2017 international dollars for women and men, respectively, and the ratio of the two values.

Legislators, senior officials and managers

Ratio of women to men employed in senior roles, defined by the International Labour Organization as those who plan, direct, coordinate and evaluate the overall activities of enterprises, governments and other organizations, or of organizational units within them, and formulate and review their policies, laws, rules and regulations. It corresponds to Major Group 1 of the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-08)

Professional and technical workers

Ratio of women to men employed in professional and technical roles, defined by the International Labour Organization as those who increase the existing stock of knowledge, apply scientific or artistic concepts and theories or those who perform technical and related tasks that require advanced knowledge and skill. It corresponds to the sum of Major Groups 2 and 3 of the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-08).

Literacy rate

Percentage of the adult population (over 15 years of age) of each gender with the ability to both read and write and make simple arithmetic calculations.

Enrolment in primary education

Percentage of girls and boys in the official primary school age range (net rate) who are enrolled in primary education (International Standard Classification of Education [ISCED] 1)

Enrolment in secondary education

Percentage of girls and boys in the official secondary school age range (net rate) who are enrolled in secondary education (ISCED 2 and 3). It excludes ISCED 4, which is post-secondary, non-tertiary education. Whenever data on this indicator is not available, the “Percentage of students in secondary education (ISCED 2 and 3) who are female” variable is used instead.

Enrolment in tertiary education

Total enrolment in tertiary education (gross rate), regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the most recent five-year age cohort that has left secondary school. Tertiary education consists of ISCED levels 5 to 8, and gross enrolment data should be examined within the context of a country structure regarding military service as well as propensity of students to seek education abroad.

Sex ratio at birth

Sex ratio at birth refers to male births per female births. The data are 5 year averages.

Healthy life expectancy

Average number of years that a person of each gender can expect to live in full health, calculated by taking into account years lived in less than full health due to disease and/or injury.

Women in parliament

Percentage of women holding parliamentary seats as a share of total parliamentary seats. In instances where a parliamentary system is bicameral, the figure used is the one for the lower house.

Women in ministerial positions

Percentage of women holding ministerial portfolios as a share of total ministry positions in each government. Some overlap between ministers and heads of government that also hold a ministerial portfolio may occur.

Years with female/male head of state (last 50)

The number of years in the past fifty-year period for which a woman has held a post equivalent to an elected head of state or head of government in the country. It takes into account prime ministers and/or presidents, royalties are not considered. It takes into account prime ministers and/or presidents, and royalties are not considered.

Women Business and the Law index

Women, Business and the Law identifies how laws and regulations impact women’s life, and economic opportunities. The index is structured around the main elements shaping women’s life : Mobility, Workplace, Pay, Marriage, Parenthood, Entrepreneurship, Assets and Pension.

Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man

The answer is “Yes” if there are no restrictions on a woman choosing where to live. The answer is “No” if there are explicit restrictions on a woman choosing where to live, if there are legal restrictions on a woman choosing where to live, if the husband chooses the marital home or has more weight in determining where the family will live, or if a woman’s domicile automatically follows that of her husband.

Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man

The answer is “Yes” if there are no restrictions on a woman traveling alone domestically. The answer is “No” if permission, additional documentation, or the presence of her husband or guardian is required for a woman to travel alone domestically; or a woman must justify her reasons for leaving the home; or leaving the home without a valid reason is considered disobedience with legal consequences, such as loss of right to maintenance.

Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man

The answer is “Yes” if there are no gender differences in passport application procedures. The answer is “No” if an adult woman needs the permission or signature of her husband, father or other relative or guardian to apply for a passport; or passport application procedures or forms require a woman to provide details about her husband, father, or other relative or guardian; or passport application procedures or forms require a woman to provide details about her husband, father, or other relative or guardian or additional documents such as a marriage certificate and if the same is not required of a man.

Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man

The answer is “Yes” if there are no restrictions on a woman traveling alone internationally. The answer is “No” if permission, additional documentation, or the presence of her husband or a guardian is required for a woman to leave the country; or the law requires a married woman to accompany her husband out of the country if he wishes her to do so.

Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man

The answer is “Yes” if there are no restrictions on a woman’s legal capacity and ability to get a job or pursue a trade or profession. The answer is “No” if a husband can prevent his wife from working; or permission or additional documentation is required for a woman to work but not a man; or it is considered a form of disobedience with legal consequences, such as loss of maintenance, for a woman to work contrary to her husband’s wishes or the interests of the family.

Does the law prohibit discrimination in employment based on gender

The answer is "Yes" if the law prohibits employers from discriminating based on sex or gender or mandates equal treatment of women and men in employment. The answer is "No" if the law does not prohibit such discrimination or only prohibits it in one aspect of employment, such as pay or dismissal.

Is there legislation on sexual harassment in employment

The answer is “Yes” if legal provisions specifically protect against sexual harassment in employment, including unwelcome verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature. The answer is “No” if there is no legislation specifically addressing sexual harassment in employment; or the law addresses harassment in general but makes no reference to acts of a sexual nature or contact; or states only that the employer has a duty to prevent sexual harassment but no provisions prohibit it or provide sanctions or other forms of redress.

Are there criminal penalties or civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment

The answer is “Yes” if the law establishes criminal sanctions, such as fines or imprisonment, for sexual harassment in employment; or the provision in the criminal code provides for reparation of damages for offenses covered by the code; or the law provides for civil remedies or compensation for victims of sexual harassment in employment or the workplace, even after dismissal of the victims. The answer is “No” if the law establishes neither criminal sanctions for sexual harassment in employment nor civil remedies or compensation for victims of sexual harassment in employment; or the law only prohibits sexual harassment in employment and sets forth that the employer should apply discretionary sanctions.

Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value

The answer is "Yes" if employers are legally obliged to pay equal remuneration to male and female employees who perform work of equal value in accordance with these definitions. The answer is "No" if the law limits the principle of equal remuneration to equal work, the same work, similar work or work of a similar nature; or the law limits the broad concept of “remuneration” to only basic wages or salary.

Can a woman work at night in the same way as a man

The answer is “Yes” if a woman who is not pregnant and not nursing can work at night in the same way as a man; or restrictions on women’s ability to work at night do not apply to the food retail sector; or women’s consent to work at night is required; or an employer needs to comply with safety measures. The answer is “No” if the law broadly prohibits a woman, including one with children over the age of one, from working at night or limits the hours that she can work at night; or the law gives the relevant authority the power to restrict or prohibit a woman’s ability to work at night, regardless of the content of any decisions issued by that authority.

Can a woman work in a job deemed dangerous in the same way as a man

The answer is “Yes” if no laws prohibit or restrict a woman who is not pregnant and not nursing from working in a broad and subjective category of jobs deemed hazardous, arduous, or morally inappropriate. The answer is “No” if the law prohibits or restricts a woman’s ability to work in jobs deemed hazardous, arduous, or morally inappropriate; or the relevant authority can determine whether particular jobs are too hazardous, arduous, or morally inappropriate for a woman but not for a man, regardless of the content of any decisions issued by that authority.

Can a woman work in an industrial job in the same way as a man

The answer is “Yes” if a woman who is not pregnant and not nursing can work in the mining, construction, manufacturing, energy, water, agriculture, and transportation industries in the same way as a man. The answer is “No” if the law prohibits a woman from working in any of these industries; or a woman’s employment in the relevant industries is restricted in any way, such as by prohibiting her from working at night in “industrial undertakings;” or by giving the relevant authority the power to prohibit or restrict her ability to work in certain jobs or industries, regardless of the content of any decisions issued by that authority.

Is there no legal provision that requires a married woman to obey her husband

The answer is "Yes" if there is no provision requiring a married woman to obey her husband. The answer is "No" if there is an explicit provision stating that a married woman must obey her hushusband or if disobeying the husband has legal ramifications for a married woman, such as loss of her right to maintenance.

Can a woman be head of household in the same way as a man

The answer is "Yes" if there are no restrictions on a woman being head of household or head of family. The answer is "No" if the law designates the husband as head of household or stipulates that he leads the family; or a male is designated as the default family member who receives the family book or equivalent document that is needed for accessing services.

Is there legislation specifically addressing domestic violence

The answer is “Yes” if there is legislation addressing domestic violence that includes criminal sanctions or provides for protection orders for domestic violence. The answer is “No” if there is no legislation addressing domestic violence, if the domestic violence legislation does not provide for sanctions or protection orders, or if only a specific category of women or family member is protected; or there is only a provision that increases penalties for general crimes covered in the criminal code if committed between spouses or within the family.

Can a woman obtain a judgment of divorce in the same way as a man

The answer is “Yes” if the process to obtain a judgment of divorce is equal for a woman and a man or provides additional protections for a woman, such as prohibiting a husband from initiating divorce proceedings while his wife is pregnant. The answer is “No” if there are procedural or evidentiary differences for a woman seeking a judgment of divorce; or only a man can initiate divorce proceedings; or divorce is not legally allowerd.

Does a woman have the same rights to remarry as a man

The answer is “Yes” if a woman and a man have equal rights to remarry. The answer is “No” if the law limits a woman’s right to remarry, such as by requiring a waiting period before remarriage to which a man is not subject; or divorce is not legally allowed.

Is paid leave of at least 14 weeks available to mothers

The answer is “Yes” if mothers are legally entitled to at least 14 weeks (98 calendar days) of paid leave for the birth of a child through maternity leave, parental leave or a combination of both. The answer is “No” the law does not establish paid leave for mothers, or if the length of paid leave is less than 14 weeks.

Does the government administer 100% of maternity leave benefits

The answer is “Yes” if leave benefits are fully administered by a government entity, including compulsory social insurance schemes (such as social security), public funds, government-mandated private insurance or employer reimbursement of any maternity leave benefits paid directly to an employee. The answer is “No” if any of the cost is shared by the employer; or contributions or taxes are mandated only for female employees, if the social insurance scheme that provides maternity leave benefits is optional, or if no paid leave is available to expectant and new mothers.

Is there paid leave available to fathers

The answer is “Yes” if fathers are legally entitled to at least one day of paid paternity leave for the birth of a child, or if the law reserves a portion of paid parental leave specifically for fathers—that is, through “use-it-or-lose-it” policies or fathers’ quotas; or fathers are individually entitled to paid parental leave. The answer is “No” if the law does not guarantee fathers any paid paternity leave or other specific leave for the birth of a child; or allowances for the birth of a child must be deducted from annual or sick leave.

Is there paid parental leave

The answer is “Yes” if parents are legally entitled to some form of full-time paid parental leave, either shared between mother and father (at least two weeks) or as an individual entitlement that each can take regardless of the other (at least one week each); or the duration of paid maternity leave and paid paternity leave is the same. The answer is “No” if the law does not mandate any form of paid parental leave.

Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited

he answer is “Yes” if the law explicitly prohibits the dismissal of pregnant women, if pregnancy cannot serve as grounds for termination of a contract, or if dismissal of pregnant workers is considered a form of unlawful termination, unfair dismissal, or wrongful discharge. The answer is “No” if there are no provisions prohibiting the dismissal of pregnant workers, or if the law only prohibits the dismissal of pregnant workers during maternity leave, for a limited period of the pregnancy, or when their pregnancy results in illness or disability.

Does the law prohibit discrimination in access to credit based on gender

The answer is “Yes” if the law prohibits discrimination by creditors based on sex or gender or prescribes equal access for both men and women when conducting financial transactions or entrepreneurial activities, or if the law prohibits gender discrimination when accessing goods and services. The answer is “No” if the law does not prohibit such discrimination or if the law does not provide for effective remedies.

Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man

The answer is “Yes” if a woman obtains full legal capacity upon reaching the age of majority and there are no restrictions on her signing legally binding contracts. The answer is “No” if a woman has limited legal capacity to sign a contract or needs the signature, consent, or permission of her husband or guardian to do so.

Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man

The answer is “Yes” if there are no restrictions on a woman registering a business. The answer is “No” if a woman has limited legal capacity to register a business, including situations in which she needs her husband’s or guardian’s permission, signature or consent to register a business.; or the registration process at any stage requires a woman to provide additional information or documentation that is not required of a man.

Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man

The answer is “Yes” if there are no restrictions on a woman opening a bank account. The answer is “No” if a woman has limited legal capacity or is required to provide any additional permission or documentation that is not required of a man; or legal provisions limit the ability of a woman to open a bank account, such as stating that only a married woman who is separately employed from her husband may open a bank account in her own name.

Do men and women have equal ownership rights to immovable property

The answer is “Yes” if there are no restrictions on women’s legal capacity and rights to immovable property. The answer is “No” if women's rights to own or administer property are legally restricted, or if there are gender differences in the legal treatment of spousal property, such as granting the husband administrative control of marital property, or for cases in which customary law is prevalent, if there is no statutory law that recognizes equal property rights.

Do sons and daughters have equal rights to inherit assets from their parents

The answer is “Yes” if sons and daughters have the same rights to inherit assets from their parents. The answer is “No” if there are gender-based differences in the recognition of children as heirs to property .

Do male and female surviving spouses have equal rights to inherit assets

The answer is “Yes” if surviving spouses of either gender with no living children have the same inheritance rights. The answer is “No” if there are gender-based differences in the inheritance rights of surviving spouses.

Does the law grant spouses equal administrative authority over assets during marriage

The answer is “Yes” if spouses retain administrative power over those assets each brought to the marriage or acquired during marriage, and their accrued value, without the need for spousal consent; or spouses administer their separate property, but for major transactions, such as selling or pledging the property as collateral, spousal consent is required or if both spouses have equal rights in the administration and transaction of joint property. The answer is “No” if the husband has administrative rights over all property, including any separate property of the wife, or if the husband's word prevails in case of disagreement; or customary law (which often discriminates against women) is prevalent, if there is no statutory law that recognizes equal property administration.

Does the law provide for the valuation of nonmonetary contributions

The answer is “Yes” if there is an explicit legal recognition of such contributions and the law provides for equal or equitable division of the property or the transfer of a lump sum to the stay-at-home spouse based on nonmonetary contributions; or the default marital property regime is full community, partial community, or deferred community of property because these regimes implicitly recognize nonmonetary contributions at the time of property division and benefit both spouses regardless of who purchased the property or holds title to it. The answer is “No” if the default marital property regime is not a form of community of property and there is no explicit legal provision providing for equal or equitable division of property based on nonmonetary contributions.

Is the age at which men and women can retire with full pension benefits the same

The answer is “Yes” if the statutory age at which men and women can retire and receive an irrevocable minimum old-age pension is the same. The answer is “No” if there is a difference in the statutory age or if there is no mandatory pension scheme implemented for private sector workers.

Is the age at which men and women can retire with partial pension benefits the same

The answer is “Yes” if the age at which men and women can retire and receive partial pension benefits is the same or if the age at which men and women can retire and receive partial benefits is not mandated. The answer is “No” if the age at which men and women can retire and receive partial pension benefits is different or if there is no mandatory pension scheme implemented for private sector workers.

Is the mandatory retirement age for men and women the same

The answer is “Yes” if the legally established age at which men and women must retire is the same or if there is no mandatory retirement age. The answer is “No” if the age at which men and women must retire is different.

Are periods of absence due to childcare accounted for in pension benefits

The answer is “Yes” if pension contributions are paid or credited during maternity or parental leave or the leave period is considered a qualifying period of employment used for the purpose of calculating pension benefits; or there are mechanisms to compensate for any contribution gaps and to ensure that the leave period does not reduce the assessment base or pension amounts or if there are no mandatory contributory pension schemes, but there is a noncontributory universal social pension conditioned on noncontributory requirements with no means test attached. The answer is “No” if there are no compensating pension arrangements for periods of childcare or if there is no mandatory contributory pension scheme for private sector workers and no noncontributory universal social pension.

Women Peace and Security Index

Women, Peace, and Security Index provides important insights into patterns and progress on women’s status and empowerment around the world in the three dimensions inclusion, justice, and security using 11 indicators.

Education (years)

Average number of years of education received by women ages 25 and older, converted from educational attainment using official durations of each level.

Financial inclusion (%)

The percentage of women ages 15 and older who reported having an account alone or jointly at a bank or another type of financial institution or personally using a mobile money service.

Employment (%)

The percentage of a country's female population ages 25 years and older that is employed.

Cell phone use (%) ^m

The percentage of women ages 15 years and older responding 'Yes' to Gallup World Poll question' Do you have a mobile phone that you use to make and receive personal calls?

Parliamentary representation (%)

The percentage of seats held by women in lower and upper houses of national parliaments.

Absensce of legal discrimination (aggregate score)

The absence of legal discrimination indicator measures the degree (0 to 100) to which the laws and regulations differentiate between women and men, or protect womens opportunities, across 35 aspects of life and work.

Sex ratio at birth (male to female ratio)

Ratio of male births per female births

Discriminatry norms (%)

Percentage of males ages 15 years and older who responded 'No' to the Gallup World Poll question' Is it acceptable any woman in your family to have paid jobs outside their home if she wants one?

Perception of community safety (%)

Percentage of females ages 15 years and older who responded 'Yes' to the Gallup World Poll question' Do you feel safe walking alone at night in the city or area where you live?

Intimate partner violence (%)

The percentage of women who experienced physical or sexual violence committed by their intimate partner 12 months preceding the survey from which the information is gathered.

Organized violence (battle deaths per 100,000 people)

Total number of battle deaths from state and non-state, or one-sided conflicts per 100,000 people. State-based conflict is armed conflict between two states or between a state and rebel groups or militias or between groups with different ethnic, clan, or religious identification. One-sided violence is use of armed force by the government or a formally organised group against civilians.

plus interface iconGovernance

E-Government Development Index

More and more in the world, public institutions are transforming their services to deliver them online. UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) develops this index to assess the digital government development of the 193 United Nations Member States in identifying their strengths, challenges and opportunities, as well as informing policies and strategies.

This index supports countries’ efforts to provide effective, accountable and inclusive digital services to all and to bridge the digital divides in fulfilling the principle of leaving no one behind.

Online Service Index

The Government Online Service Index (OIS) is one of the three main components of the E-Government Development Index (EGDI) constructed and published by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. The OIS assesses the quality of a government’s delivery of online services on a 0-to-1 (best) scale. The assessment is carried out by researchers, who evaluate “each country’s national website in the native language, including the national portal, e-services portal, and e-participation portal, as well as the websites of the related ministries of education, labor, social services, health, finance, and environment, as applicable.

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions per 100 inhabitants

Mobile cellular telephone subs per 100 inh:The term “mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions” refers to the number of subscriptions to a public mobile-telephone service providing access to the public switched telephone network using cellular technology. It includes both the number of postpaid subscriptions and the number of active prepaid accounts (i.e. accounts that have been active during the previous three months). It includes all mobile-cellular subscriptions that offer voice communications. It excludes subscriptions via data cards or USB modems, subscriptions to public mobile data services, private trunked mobile radio, telepoint, radio paging, machine-to-machine (M2M) and telemetry services.

Percentage of Individuals using the Internet

ICT use / Percentage of individuals using the Internet:“Internet users” refers to the proportion of individuals who used the Internet in the last 12 months. Data are generally based on national household surveys where the percentage should reflect the total population of the country.

Fixed (wired) broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants

Fixed wired broadband subscriptions include the total number of subscriptions to the following broadband technologies with download speeds of 256 kbit/s or greater: DSL, cable modem, fibre-to-the-home and other fixed technologies (such as broadband over power lines and leased lines). This indicator is measured in number of subscriptions per 100 inhabitants and in total number of subscriptions. "

Active mobile-broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants

ICT use / Active mobile broadband subscription per 100 inh:This indicator refers to the sum of active handset-based and computer-based mobile-broadband subscriptions to the public Internet, where users have accessed the Internet in the last three months. It covers actual subscribers, not potential subscribers, even though the latter may have broadband-enabled handsets.

Fixed telephone subscritions per 100 inhabitants

Adult Literacy (%)

Adult literacy rate” is defined as the percentage of the population aged 15 years and over who can read, write, and understand a short, simple statement on his/her everyday life.

Gross Enrollment Ratio

The total number of students enrolled at the primary, secondary and tertiary level, regardless of age, as a percentage of the school-age population.

Expected Year of Schooling

The term “mean years of schooling” is the average number of completed years of education of a country’s population, excluding years spent repeating individual grades.

Mean Year of Schooling

The term “mean years of schooling” is the average number of completed years of education of a country’s population, excluding years spent repeating individual grades.

E-Participation index

Digital technologies allow today to easily engage citizens in public decision-making processes and to let them participate in public consultations. The e-participation index (EPI) is derived as a supplementary index to the UN E-Government Survey. It extends the dimension of the Survey by focusing on the use of online services to facilitate provision of information by governments to citizens (“e-information sharing”), interaction with stakeholders (“e-consultation”), and engagement in decision-making processes (“e-decision making”).

The goal of e-participation initiatives should be to improve the citizen's access to information and public services; and promote participation in public decision-making which impacts the well-being of society, in general, and the individual, in particular.

Stage One (%)

E-information: Enabling participation by providing citizens with public information and access to information without or upon demand.

Stage Two (%)

E-decision-making: Empowering citizens through co-design of policy option and co-production of service components and delivery modalities.

Stage Three (%)

E-consultation: Engaging citizens in contributions to and deliberation on public policies and services.

plus interface iconTechnology readiness and innovation

Global Cybersecurity Index

Cybersecurity becomes an imperative as institutions are moving increasingly to digital platforms. Developed by International Telecom Union, The Global Cybersecurity Index (GCI) measures the commitment of countries to cybersecurity at a global level to raise awareness of the importance and different dimensions of the issue.

It is composed by five pillars – (i) Legal Measures, (ii) Technical Measures, (iii) Organizational Measures, (iv) Capacity Building, and (v) Cooperation.

Cybercrime substantive law

Substantive law refers to all categories of public and private law, including the law of contracts, real property, torts, wills, and criminal law that essentially creates, defines, and regulates rights.

Cybersecurity regulations

Regulation is rule based and meant to carry out a specific piece of legislation. Regulations are enforced usually by a regulatory agency formed or mandated to carry out the purpose or provisions of a legislation. Cybersecurity regulation designates the principles, to be abided by various stakeholders, emanating from and being part of the implementation of laws dealing with data protection, breach notification, cybersecurity certification/standardization requirements, implementation of cybersecurity measures, cybersecurity audit requirements, privacy protection, child online protection, digital signatures and e-transactions, and the liability of Internet service providers.

Containement or curbing of spam

National CERT/CIRT/ CSIRT

CIRT-CSIRT-CERT: computer incident response teams, staffed concrete organizational entities that are assigned the responsibility for coordinating and supporting the response to computer security events or incidents on national or government level.

National framework for implementation of cybersecurity standards

Adopted a national framework (or frameworks) for the implementation of internationally recognized cybersecurity standards within the public sector (government agencies) and within the critical infrastructure (even if operated by the private sector). These standards include, but are not limited to, those developed by the following agencies: ISO, ITU, IETF, IEEE, ATIS, OASIS, 3GPP, 3GPP2, IAB, ISOC, ISG, ISI, ETSI, ISF, RFC, ISA, IEC, NERC, NIST, FIPS, PCI DSS, etc.

Sectorial CERT/CIRT/ CSIRT

A sectoral CIRT/CSIRT/CERT is an entity that responds to computer security or cybersecurity incidents which affect a specific sector. Sectoral CERTs are usually established for critical sectors such as healthcare, public utilities, academia, emergency services and the financial sector. The sectoral CERT provides its services to constituents from a single sector only.

Technical mechanisms and capabilities to address spam

Cloud for cybersecurity purposes in the public sector

Child Online Protection

This indicator measures the existence of a national agency dedicated to Child Online Protection, the availability of a national telephone number to report issues associated with children online, any technical mechanisms and capabilities deployed to help protect children online, and any activity by government or non-government institutions to provide knowledge and support to stakeholders on how to protect children online telephone number, email address, web forms and other, where the interested parties can report incidents or concerns related to Child Online Protection (COP).

National Cybersecurity Strategy

The development of policy to promote cybersecurity as one of national top priorities. A national cybersecurity strategy should define the maintaining of resilient and reliable national critical information infrastructures including the security and the safety of citizens; protect the material and intellectual assets of citizens, organizations and the nation; respond, prevent cyber-attacks against critical infrastructures; and minimize damage and recovery time from cyber-attacks.

Responsible Agency

A responsible agency for implementing the national cybersecurity strategy/policy can include permanent committees, official working groups, advisory councils, or cross‑disciplinary centres. Such a body may also be directly responsible for the national CIRT. The responsible agency may exist within the government and may have the authority to compel other agencies and national bodies to implement policies and adopt standards.

Cybersecurity metrics

Existence of any officially recognized national or sector‑specific benchmarking exercises or referential used to measure cybersecurity development, risk-assessment strategies, cybersecurity audits, and other tools and activities for a rating or evaluating resulting performance for future improvements. For example, based on ISO/IEC 27004, which is concerned with measurements relating to information security management.

Public cybersecurity awareness campaigns

Public awareness includes efforts to promote campaigns to reach as many citizens as possible as well as making use of NGOs, institutions, organizations, ISPs, libraries, local trade organizations, community centres, community colleges and adult education programmes, schools and parent-teacher organizations to get the message across about safe cyber-behaviour online. This includes actions such as setting up portals and websites to promote awareness, disseminating support materials and other relevant activities.

Training for Cybersecurity Professionals

The existence of sector-specific professional training programs for raising awareness for the general public (i.e., national cybersecurity awareness day, week, or month), promoting cybersecurity education for the workforce of different profiles (technical, social sciences, etc.) and promoting certification of professionals in either the public or the private sector. It also includes cybersecurity training for law enforcement officers, judicial and other legal actors designate professional and technical training that can be recurring for police officers, enforcement agents, judges, solicitors, barristers, attorneys, lawyers, paralegals and other persons of the legal and law enforcement profession. This indicator also includes the existence of a government-approved (or endorsed) framework (or frameworks) for the certification and accreditation of professionals by internationally recognized cybersecurity standards. These certifications, accreditations, and standards include, but are not limited to, the following: Cloud Security knowledge (Cloud Security Alliance), CISSP, SSCP, CSSLP CBK, Cybersecurity Forensic Analyst (ISC²), and other.

Educational programs/academic curricula in cybersecurity

Existence and the promotion of national education courses and programmes to train the younger generation in cybersecurity-related skills and professions in schools, colleges, universities and other learning institutes. Cybersecurity-related professions include, but are not limited to, cryptanalysts, digital forensics experts, incident responders, security architects and penetration testers.

Educational programs/academic curricula in cybersecurity

Existence and the promotion of national education courses and programmes to train the younger generation in cybersecurity-related skills and professions in schools, colleges, universities and other learning institutes. Cybersecurity-related professions include, but are not limited to, cryptanalysts, digital forensics experts, incident responders, security architects and penetration testers.

Research and development programs

This indicator measures the investment into national cybersecurity research and development programs at institutions that could be private, public, academic, non-governmental, or international. It also considers the presence of a nationally recognized institutional body overseeing the program. Cybersecurity research programs include but are not limited to, malware analysis, cryptography research, and research into system vulnerabilities and security models and concepts. Cybersecurity development programs refer to the development of hardware or software solutions that include but are not limited to firewalls, intrusion prevention systems, honey pots, and hardware security modules. The presence of an overarching national body to increase coordination among the various institutions and the sharing of resources is required.

Government incentive mechanisms

This indicator looks at any incentive efforts by the government to encourage capacity building in the field of cybersecurity, whether through tax breaks, grants, funding, loans, disposal of facilities, and other economic and financial motivators, including dedicated and nationally recognized institutional body overseeing cybersecurity capacity-building activities. Incentives increase the demand for cybersecurity-related services and products, which improves defences against cyber threats.

National cybersecurity industry

A favourable economic, political, and social environment supporting cybersecurity development incentivizes the growth of a private sector around cybersecurity. The existence of public awareness campaigns, workforce development, capacity building, and government incentives drive a market for cybersecurity products and services. The existence of a home-grown cybersecurity industry is a testament to such a favourable environment and drives the growth of cybersecurity start-ups and associated cyber-insurance markets.

Bilateral cybersecurity agreements

Bilateral agreements (one-to-one agreements) refer to any officially recognized national or sector‑specific partnerships for sharing cybersecurity information or assets across borders by the government with one other foreign government and regional entity (i.e., the cooperation or exchange of information, expertise, technology and other resources). The indicator also measures whether information sharing of threat intelligence. Capacity building refers to the sharing of professional tools, advanced envelopment of experts, and others.

Cybersecurity multilateral agreements

Multilateral agreements (one to multiparty agreements) refers to any officially recognized national or sector‑specific programmes for sharing cybersecurity information or assets across borders by the government with multiple foreign governments or international organizations (i.e. the cooperation or exchange of information, expertise, technology and other resources).

Government participation in international cybersecurity mechanisms

It may also include ratification of international agreements regarding cybersecurity, such as African Union Convention on Cyber Security and Personal Data Protection, Budapest Convention on Cybercrime and others.

Partnerships with the private sector (PPPs)

Public‑private partnerships (PPP) refer to ventures between the public and private sector. This performance indicator measures the number of officially recognized national or sector‑specific PPPs for sharing cybersecurity information and assets (people, processes, tools) between the public and private sector (i.e. official partnerships for the cooperation or exchange of information, expertise, technology and/or resources), whether nationally or internationally

Inter agency cooperation

This performance indicator refers to any official partnerships between the various government agencies within the nation state (does not refer to international partnerships). This can designate partnerships for information- or asset-sharing between ministries, departments, programmes and other public sector institutions.

Best practice

ICT Development Index

ICTs could not positively impact national development unless there is an appropriate access and use of these technologies in the country. Produced by the International Telecom Union (ITU), The ICT Development Index (IDI), is a composite index that combines 11 indicators into one benchmark measure.

It is used to monitor and compare developments in information and communication technology (ICT) between countries and over time. IDI focuses on three aspects: ICT Access, Use and Impact.

Fixed telephone subscription per 100 inh

Fixed telephone subscription per 100 inh:The term “fixed-telephone subscriptions” refers to the sum of active analogue fixed-telephone lines, voice-over-Internet Protocol (VoIP) subscriptions, fixed wireless local loop subscriptions, Integrated Services Digital Network voice-channel equivalents and fixed public payphones. It includes all accesses over fixed infrastructure supporting voice telephony using copper wire, voice services using Protocol (IP) delivered over fixed (wired)- broadband infrastructure (e.g. digital subscriber line (DSL), fibre optic), and voice services provided over coaxial-cable television networks (cable modem). It also includes fixed wireless local loop connections, defined as services provided licensed fixed-line telephone operators that provide last-mile access to the subscriber using radio technology, where the call is then routed over a fixed-line telephone network (not a mobile cellular network). VoIP refers to subscriptions that offer the ability to place and receive calls at any time and do not require a computer. VoIP is known as voice-over-broadband (VoB), and includes subscriptions through fixed-wireless, DSL, cable, fibre optic and other fixed-broadband platforms that provide fixed telephony using IP.

Mobile cellular telephone subs per 100 inh

Mobile cellular telephone subs per 100 inh:The term “mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions” refers to the number of subscriptions to a public mobile-telephone service providing access to the public switched telephone network using cellular technology. It includes both the number of postpaid subscriptions and the number of active prepaid accounts (i.e. accounts that have been active during the previous three months). It includes all mobile-cellular subscriptions that offer voice communications. It excludes subscriptions via data cards or USB modems, subscriptions to public mobile data services, private trunked mobile radio, telepoint, radio paging, machine-to-machine (M2M) and telemetry services.

International Internet bandwidth (kb/s) per internet user

International Internet bandwidth (b/s) per internet user:This indicator refers to the usage of all international links including fiber-optic cables, radio links, and traffic processed by satellite ground stations and teleports to orbital satellites.

Percentage of households with a computer

Percentage of households with a computer:The term “individuals using the Internet” refers to people who used the Internet from any location and for any purpose, irrespective of the device and network used, in the previous three months. Usagecan be via a computer (i.e. desktop computer,laptop computer, tablet or similar handheld computer), mobile phone, games machine, digital television, etc.). Access can be via a fixed or mobile network.

Percentage of households with internet access

Percentage of households with internet access:The Internet is a worldwide public computer network. It provides access to a number of communication services, including the World Wide Web, and carries e-mail, news, entertainment and data files, irrespective of the device used (not assumed to be only a computer; it may also be a mobile telephone, tablet, PDA, games machine, digital television, etc.). Access can be via a fixed or mobile network. Household with Internet access means that the Internet is available for use by all members of the household at any time.