Using international indices

ESCWA supports member States in streamlining economic planning and coordination across ministries and partners, and acts as regional policy advisor on the use of international indices for developing effective and transformational policies.

With ISPAR, ESCWA offers technical support in identifying strengths and weaknesses related to regional and international indicators towards more effective policymaking.

The selected indicators cover competitiveness, gender, business, technology and innovation.

View of Cairo. Photo: Sherif Moharram/unsplash
plus interface iconTechnology readiness and innovation

AI Readiness Index

The Gov AI readiness index measures national preparedness to harness AI technology for development. The index consists of 3 pillars, that cover 10 dimensions. The scores of these dimensions are calculated based on 33 KPIs.

The index shows that there is a global commitment to AI, as the number of national AI strategies is increasing.

Vision

Looks at whether or not a country has (or is in the process of creating) a national AI strategy.

AI strategy

Looks at whether or not a country has (or is in the process of creating) a national AI strategy.

Data protection and privacy laws

As more and more social and economic activities have place online, the importance of privacy and data protection is increasingly recognized. Of equal concern is the collection, use and sharing of personal information to third parties without notice or consent of consumers. 128 out of 194 countries had put in place legislation to secure the protection of data and privacy.

Cybersecurity

The Global Cybersecurity Index (GCI) provides a measure of the level of cybersecurity commitment of countries. It is a composite index made up of 25 indicators that are distributed across five main pillars: Legal Measures, Technical Measures, Organizational Measures, Capacity Building Measures, and Cooperation Measures. Scores are standardized to a scale of 0 to 1.

Ethical principles

Categorizing and evaluating various AI Principles implemented by companies and national legislations

Legal framework's adaptability to digital business models

Response to the survey question “In your country, how fast is the legal framework of your country adapting to digital business models (e.g. e-commerce, sharing economy, fintech, etc.)?” [1= not fast at all; 7 = very fast]

Accountability

Captures perceptions of the extent to which a country's citizens are able to participate in selecting their government, as well as freedom of expression, freedom of association, and a free media.

Government procurement of advanced technology

The Government Online Service Index (OIS) is one of the three main components of the E-Government Development Index (EGDI) constructed and published by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. The OIS assesses the quality of a government’s delivery of online services on a 0-to-1 (best) scale. The assessment is carried out by researchers, who evaluate “each country’s national website in the native language, including the national portal, e-services portal, and e-participation portal, as well as the websites of the related ministries of education, labor, social services, health, finance, and environment, as applicable.

ICT use and government efficiency

The data refer to the simple mean of the average answers to a similarly worded question regarding five different emerging technologies: In your country, to what extent does the government foster investment (public and private) in Artificial intelligence and machine learning|Robotics|App- and web-enabled markets|Big data analytics|Cloud computing? (1: not at all; 7: to a great extent)

Online services

The Government Online Service Index (OIS) is one of the three main components of the E-Government Development Index (EGDI) constructed and published by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. The OIS assesses the quality of a government’s delivery of online services on a 0-to-1 (best) scale. The assessment is carried out by researchers, who evaluate “each country’s national website in the native language, including the national portal, e-services portal, and e-participation portal, as well as the websites of the related ministries of education, labor, social services, health, finance, and environment, as applicable.

Trust in Government websites and apps

identifies the perceived effect of digital technology on the standard of public services.

Government promotion of investment in emerging technologies

The following indicator refers to the simple mean of the average answer of a similarly-worded question posited by the EOS regarding a government’s ability to foster investment in five emerging technology sectors (Artificial intelligence, Robotics, App- and web-enabled markets, Big data analytics, and Cloud computing).

Foundational IT infrastructure

Refers to the core technology systems, networks, and software applications that support their operations and enable digital transformation in the public sector. It includes essential components such as hardware, software, data management systems, and connectivity infrastructure.

Government Effectiveness

Index that reflects perceptions of the quality of public services, the quality of the civil service and the degree of its independence from political pressures, the quality of policy formulation and implementation, and the credibility of the government’s commitment to such policies.

Government's responsiveness to change

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent does the government respond effectively to change (e.g. technological changes, societal and demographic trends, security and economic challenges)?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]

Procurement Data

a governmental procurement site that supports electronic transactions.

Number of technology unicorns

A unicorn company, or unicorn startup, is a private company with a valuation over $1 billion. As of August 2021, there are more than 700 unicorns around the world. Popular former unicorns include Airbnb, Facebook and Google. Variants include a decacorn, valued at over $10 billion, and a hectocorn, valued at over $100 billions.

Market value of large technology firms

market value of public technologies companies

Value of trade in ICT services (per capita) (log transformation)

Value of trade in ICT services (per capita)

Value of trade in ICT goods (per capita) (log transformation)

Value of trade in ICT goods (per capita)

Computer software spending

Total computer software spending (% of GDP) . “Computer software spending” includes the total value of purchased or leased packaged software such as operating systems, database systems, programming tools, utilities, and applications. It excludes expenditures for internal software development and outsourced custom software development. The data are a combination of actual figures and estimates. Data are reported as a percentage of GDP.

Number of non-AI Unicorns (log transformation)

large number of countries not having a significant technological sector.

Number of AI Unicorns (log transformation)

large number of countries having a significant technological sector.

Entrepreneurial culture

Attitudes towards entrepreneurial risk (Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent do people have an appetite for entrepreneurial risk?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent] Willingness to delegate authority (Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent does senior management delegate authority to subordinates?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent] Growth of innovative companies (Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent do new companies with innovative ideas grow rapidly?”[1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent] Companies embracing disruptive ideas (Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent do companies embrace risky or disruptive business ideas?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]

Ease of Doing Business

Doing Business records all procedures officially required, or commonly done in practice, for an entrepreneur to start up and formally operate an industrial or commercial business, as well as the time and cost to complete these procedures and the paid-in minimum capital requirement . These procedures include the processes entrepreneurs undergo when obtaining all necessary approvals, licenses, and permits and completing any required notifications, verifications, or inscriptions for the company and employees with relevant authorities.

R&D Spending (log transformation)

Expenditures for research and development are current and capital expenditures (both public and private) on creative work undertaken systematically to increase knowledge—including knowledge of humanity, culture and society—and the use of knowledge for new applications. R&D covers basic research, applied research and experimental development.

Company investment in emerging technologies

Average answer to the question: In your country, to what extent do companies invest in emerging technologies (e.g. Internet of Things, advanced analytics and artificial intelligence, augmented virtual reality and wearables, advanced robotics, 3D printing)? [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent].

Business administrative requirements

Administrative Requirements measure the cost and time to start a business in addition, to the insolvency of the recovery rate and the regulatory framework.

VC availability

In your country, how easy is it for entrepreneurs with innovative but risky projects to find venture capital? [1 = extremely difficult; 7 = extremely easy]

AI research papers (log transformation)

Number of papers that focus on various aspects of artificial intelligence (AI) and related fields.

Graduates in science & engineering

Graduates in STEM

Quality of Engineering and Technology Higher Ed

Ranking of universities

Digital skills

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent does the active population possess sufficient digital skills (e.g. computer skills, basic coding, digital reading)?” [1 = not all; 7 = to a great extent]

Knowledge-intensive employment

Proportion of employed knowledge workers

Research papers in AI

The number of research papers published in AI indicates the scale of research being done at the highest level.

Graduates in STEM or computer science

graduates from Science, Technology and Mathematics programmes in tertiary education.

Github Activity

GitHub is a large host of source code, and commits are known as any saved changes initiated on the platform. As such, the GitHub commits indicator refers to the number of publicly available commits on the GitHub website.

Female STEM Graduates

Female share of graduates in the given field of education, tertiary is the number of female graduates expressed as a percentage of the total number of graduates in the given field of education from tertiary education.

Telecommunications infrastructure

The Survey is the only global report that assesses the e-government development status of all Member States of the United Nations. The assessment rates the e-government performance of countries relative to one another, as opposed to being an absolute measurement. It recognizes that each country should decide upon the level and extent of its e-government initiatives in keeping with its own national development priorities and achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. The Survey measures e-government effectiveness in the delivery of public services and identifies patterns in e-government development and performance as well as countries and areas where the potential of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) and e-government has not yet been fully exploited and where capacity development support might be helpful.

Availability of latest technologies

In your country, to what extent are the latest technologies available? [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]

5G Infrastructure

VIAVI empowers Service Providers and IT organizations to manage the network lifecycle for complex 5G and Fiber networks with intuitive instruments, systems and technologies; and our expertise in light management and optical coatings help protect the world’s bank notes from counterfeiters, enhance the colors you see, and enable advanced technology such as 3D sensing.

Internet bandwidth

International Internet bandwidth (b/s) per internet user:This indicator refers to the usage of all international links including fiber-optic cables, radio links, and traffic processed by satellite ground stations and teleports to orbital satellites

Supercomputers

the number of supercomputers a country has within the top 500 as an indicator of the level of large-scale computing infrastructure available within the country.

Adoption of emerging technologies

The Adoption of emerging technologies indicator refers to the average answer of a similarly-worded question posited by the EOS regarding five different emerging technologies (Artificial intelligence, Robotics, App- and web-enabled markets, Big data analytics, and Cloud computing).

Cloud Providers

offer cloud computing services and infrastructure to individuals, businesses, and other entities. These providers typically operate large-scale data centers and provide various services such as virtual servers, storage, databases, networking, and software applications, among others. 

Broadband Quality

Is the transmission of high-quality data of wide bandwidth.

Data Governance

A global measure of how governments are publishing and using open data for accountability, innovation and social impact.

Statistical Capacity

The World Bank’s Statistical Capacity Indicator is a composite score assessing the capacity of a country’s statistical system. It is based on a diagnostic framework assessing the following areas: methodology; data sources; and periodicity and timeliness. Countries are scored against 25 criteria in these areas, using publicly available information and/or country input. The overall Statistical Capacity score is then being calculated as simple average of all three area scores on a scale of 0-100.

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions

Mobile cellular telephone subs per 100 inh:The term “mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions” refers to the number of subscriptions to a public mobile‑telephone service providing access to the public switched telephone network using cellular technology. It includes both the number of postpaid subscriptions and the number of active prepaid accounts (i.e. accounts that have been active during the previous three months). It includes all mobile-cellular subscriptions that offer voice communications. It excludes subscriptions via data cards or USB modems, subscriptions to public mobile data services, private trunked mobile radio, telepoint, radio paging, machine-to-machine (M2M) and telemetry services.

Internet users (% of adult population)

ICT use / Percentage of individuals using the Internet:“Internet users” refers to the proportion of individuals who used the Internet in the last 12 months. Data are generally based on national household surveys where the percentage should reflect the total population of the country.

Open Data

making data available for public use, that promotes transparency, accountability and value creation by making government data available to all.

Households with internet access

means that the Internet is available for use of any member of the household at any time

Gender gap in internet access

This indicator refers to the share of, respectively, women and men in a country that use the Internet. Scores are calculated as the ratio of the share related to the female population over the share related to the male population.

Socioeconomic gap

Economic inequalities in accessing to the Internet

Gender gap in mobile access

It explores the key barriers preventing women’s equal mobile ownership and access to mobile internet as well as the widening smartphone ownership gender gap.

Cost of cheapest internet-enabled device (% of monthly GDP per capita)

A major component of mobile internet affordability is the affordability of internet-enabled devices. In this context, it is important to consider the affordability of the cheapest internet-enabled device (whether a smartphone or feature phone), measured as the cost relative to monthly income per capita.

B2C E-Commerce Index

The UNCTAD B2C E-commerce Index measures an economy’s preparedness to support online shopping. The index consists of four indicators that are highly related to online shopping and for which there is wide country coverage

The extent to which people shop online in a country is highly correlated with the value of the index

Share of individuals using the Internet

All individuals who have used the Internet in the last 3 month are counted as Internet users. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc

Share of individuals with an account

The percent of population that ages 15+ and has an account ownership at a financial institution or with a mobile-money-service provider

Secure Internet servers

The number of distinct, publicly-trusted TLS/SSL certificates found in the Netcraft Secure Server Survey

UPU postal reliability score

UPU postal reliability index considers the reliability, reach, relevance and resilience of the postal service

Digital Accessibility Rights Evaluation

Allowing persons with disability to access digital devices has important socio-economic impact on the national level.

This Index is a benchmarking tool, developed by G3ict, for disability advocates, governments, civil society, international organizations and policy makers to trace country progress in making Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) accessible for all, in compliance with Article 9 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD).

CRPD ratification (UN Treaty)

The Convention follows decades of work by the United Nations to change attitudes and approaches to persons with disabilities. It takes to a new height the movement from viewing persons with disabilities as “objects” of charity, medical treatment and social protection towards viewing persons with disabilities as “subjects” with rights, who are capable of claiming those rights and making decisions for their lives based on their free and informed consent as well as being active members of society.

General Law protecting the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

The Convention is intended as a human rights instrument with an explicit, social development dimension. It adopts a broad categorization of persons with disabilities and reaffirms that all persons with all types of disabilities must enjoy all human rights and fundamental freedoms. It clarifies and qualifies how all categories of rights apply to persons with disabilities and identifies areas where adaptations have to be made for persons with disabilities to effectively exercise their rights and areas where their rights have been violated, and where protection of rights must be reinforced.

Definition of ICT accessibility

ICT Accessibility Links to resources for making websites, public access terminals, telecommunication devices, and software accessible for people with disabilities.

Definition of Reasonable Accommodation

Reasonable Accommodation' means necessary and appropriate modification and adjustments not imposing a disproportionate or undue burden, where needed in a particular case, to ensure to persons with disabilities the enjoyment or exercise on an equal basis with others of all human rights and fundamental freedoms.” Additional dispositions affirming and detailing several areas of applicability of the notion of ‘Reasonable Accommodation,’

Universal Service Obligation includes Persons with Disabilities

Universal Service Obligation (USO) is a legislation adopted by most countries to equalize telecommunications services opportunities among all citizens. While historically USOs targeted rural populations, an increasing number of countries designate Persons with Disabilities as an underserved segment of the population. The main benefit of such designation is that it supports a funding mechanism (generally named as Universal Service Fund) based on recurring revenues generated by a tax on telecommunications services collected by operators. This provides a predictable source of funding, independent of annual governments budget cycles, to support services such as relay services or other ongoing accessibility services.

Merrakesh ratification

The Marrakesh Treaty was adopted on June 27, 2013 in Marrakesh, Morocco, and it forms part of the body of international copyright treaties administered by WIPO, the World Intellectual Property Organization. It has a clear humanitarian and social development dimension and its main goal is to create a set of mandatory limitations and exceptions for the benefit of the blind, visually impaired, and otherwise print disabled (VIPs).

Government agency for Persons with Disabilities

The government Agency for Persons with Disabilities works with local communities and private providers to support people who have developmental disabilities and their families in living, learning, and working in their communities; provides assistance in identifying the service needs of people with developmental disabilities; and educates the public on disability issues while focusing attention on employment for people with disabilities.

Government agency for ICTs

Governments play a key role in stimulating the introduction of ICT-enabled solutions adapted to the needs of persons with disabilities, increasing the availability of accessible ICT and promoting the affordability of assistive technologies in social, educational, economic and other domains. These benefits can be achieved through the promotion of national innovation systems that foster public-private collaboration, as well as development and diffusion of knowledge, accessible products and content as well as assistive technologies.

Process to involve DPOs in ICT accessibility policy making

The ITU-G3ict Model ICT accessibility policy report is a practical tool for national policy-makers and regulators, for creating ICT accessibility policy frameworks and promoting accessible ICTs and the empowerment of persons with disabilities. It looks at developing national policies in consultation with persons with disabilities, and includes six modules focused on different aspects of ICT accessibility:• amendments to the existing ICT legal framework• public ICT access• mobile communications• television/video programming• public procurement of accessible ICTs.

Country refers to international ICT accessibility standards

Country refers to information and communications technology (ICT) to enhance its livability, workability, and sustainability”. Cities should begin by understanding and adopting an appropriate ICT accessibility standard to help ensure their Smart Cities programs and digital services are inclusive of persons with disabilities and older persons.

ICT accessibility courses available at universities

Making reasonable accommodations in order to provide community members with disabilities an equal opportunity to participate in courses, programs, and activities. universities should ensure that the information and communication technology (ICT) that they create or provide in conducting its programs, services, and activities is accessible to people with disabilities.

Web

Web accessibility means that websites, tools, and technologies are designed and developed so that people with disabilities can use them. More specifically, people can: perceive, understand, navigate, and interact with the Web /contribute to the Web. Such as screen readers, speech recognition, video communication (for sign language communication and video relay interpretation), voice to text services (open and closed captioning, both real-time and embedded) and visual assistance.

TV & Multimedia

As far as traditional television sets and broadcasting services are concerned, these technologies continue providing visual, audio and text output through closed captioning. The introduction of digital TV is expanding the range of features and functions that can be enabled for persons with disabilities.

Mobile Telephone

Mobile phones have proved to be the ultimate technology to connect the disabled since they have features and services which cater for persons with any disability and can be used to read, write, connect to the Internet, talk and navigate independently.

E-books and digital contents

eBooks can become large-print books with only a few clicks, and most eBook readers offer fonts and line spacing that make reading easier for people who have dyslexia or other visual challenges. Because portable devices are light and easy to hold, eBooks are easier to use for some people who have physical disabilities. Digital information is inherently flexible, so it can be rendered in nearly any format our imaginations permit, such as audio, text, graphics, and movement.

Promoting the Internet among Persons with Disabilities

An accessible Internet holds enormous potential to heighten the inclusion of people with disabilities, facilitating telework, online education, participation in e-government, and formation of relationships that overcome barriers and challenges in the physical world.

Inclusive ICTs for all in education

The aim is to provide knowledge on contemporary educational approaches that draw on the principles of inclusive education and promote equal learning, participation and opportunities for all students, including students with disabilities. It is also an approach on the significance of the contribution of ICT use in the classroom as a learning tool and especially in the education of disabled students as it assures accessibility and active participation for all students.

Enabling ICTs for all in employment

The development, procurement, lease, maintenance and use of information and communication technology (ICT) are central to the operation of businesses today. To fully participate in the workforce, applicants and employees with certain types of disabilities (such as those with limited vision and hearing) must have access to and use of information and data that is comparable to the access and use by applicants and employees without these types of disabilities. For example, if an online application system is not accessible, some applicants with disabilities can never “get through the front door.

E-government and Smart Cities for all

The concepts of e-government and smart city are increasingly used to refer to one another and have started to converge. While e-government was introduced under the flag of better service delivery by focusing on internal processes and the use of information and communications technologies (ICTs) by administrations, the smart city for All Toolkit aims to fix the disparity in cities through smart technology, making cities both smart and accessible to a range of users regardless of their abilities or disabilities.

Enabling Assistive Technologies and ICTs for independent living

ICTs are utilized to both facilitate access and assist in independent living. More than any other ICT in use today, mobile devices and services have by far the greatest impact on independent living for persons with disabilities. At the basic level, feature phones provide a means of on-demand communication for the user through both SMS and voice calls. This in itself can enable independent living by ensuring that emergency services, family members, personal aides, assistive and everyday services are just a call or text away.

Procurement of accessible public goods and services for all citizens

A general term used to describe the degree of ease that something (e.g. device, service, environment) can be used and enjoyed by persons with a disability. The term implies conscious planning, design and/or effort to ensure it is barrier free to persons with a disability, and by extension, highly usable and practical for the general population as well"

E-Government Development Index

More and more in the world, public institutions are transforming their services to deliver them online. UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) develops this index to assess the digital government development of the 193 United Nations Member States in identifying their strengths, challenges and opportunities, as well as informing policies and strategies.

This index supports countries’ efforts to provide effective, accountable and inclusive digital services to all and to bridge the digital divides in fulfilling the principle of leaving no one behind.

Online Service Index

The Government Online Service Index (OIS) is one of the three main components of the E-Government Development Index (EGDI) constructed and published by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. The OIS assesses the quality of a government’s delivery of online services on a 0-to-1 (best) scale. The assessment is carried out by researchers, who evaluate “each country’s national website in the native language, including the national portal, e-services portal, and e-participation portal, as well as the websites of the related ministries of education, labor, social services, health, finance, and environment, as applicable.

Content Provision

National portal(s) available in more than ONE official language, Information available about payments for government services through channels other than online,Evidence of free access to services through kiosks/community centers/post offices/libraries/public spaces/free Wi-Fi, Links and references for EMPLOYMENT for youth, Information about service provision in partnership with the private sector.

E-participation

The E-Participation Index measures the use of online services to facilitate provision of information by governments to citizens (“e-information sharing”), interaction with stakeholders (“e-consultation”) and engagement in decision-making processes (“e-decision making”).

Institutional Framework

Information available on the organizational structure and/or chart of the government, Names/titles of heads of government agencies/departments/ministries available on the national portal(s),Digital ID to access online services, Legislation/law/policy/regulation on e-participation.

Service Provision

E-procurement platform for bidding processes/submission of tenders, Service provision on Income taxes,Registration for a new company or business entity,Land title registration, Pay online for government fees or fines, Apply for: Receiving an affidavit of criminal record/background clearance,Access to justice: retrieve information.

Technology

Availability of Tutorials or guidance to understand and use online services, Accessibility by citizens/businesses to own data, Responsive web design, Evidence of being updated in the past month, Advanced search options

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions per 100 inhabitants

Mobile cellular telephone subs per 100 inh:The term “mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions” refers to the number of subscriptions to a public mobile-telephone service providing access to the public switched telephone network using cellular technology. It includes both the number of postpaid subscriptions and the number of active prepaid accounts (i.e. accounts that have been active during the previous three months). It includes all mobile-cellular subscriptions that offer voice communications. It excludes subscriptions via data cards or USB modems, subscriptions to public mobile data services, private trunked mobile radio, telepoint, radio paging, machine-to-machine (M2M) and telemetry services.

Percentage of Individuals using the Internet

ICT use / Percentage of individuals using the Internet:“Internet users” refers to the proportion of individuals who used the Internet in the last 12 months. Data are generally based on national household surveys where the percentage should reflect the total population of the country.

Fixed (wired) broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants

Fixed wired broadband subscriptions include the total number of subscriptions to the following broadband technologies with download speeds of 256 kbit/s or greater: DSL, cable modem, fiber-to-the-home and other fixed technologies (such as broadband over power lines and leased lines). This indicator is measured in number of subscriptions per 100 inhabitants and in total number of subscriptions.

Active mobile-broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants

ICT use / Active mobile broadband subscription per 100 inh:This indicator refers to the sum of active handset-based and computer-based mobile-broadband subscriptions to the public Internet, where users have accessed the Internet in the last three months. It covers actual subscribers, not potential subscribers, even though the latter may have broadband-enabled handsets.

Fixed telephone subscriptions per 100 inhabitants

Adult Literacy (%)

Adult literacy rate” is defined as the percentage of the population aged 15 years and over who can read, write, and understand a short, simple statement on his/her everyday life.

Gross Enrollment Ratio

The total number of students enrolled at the primary, secondary and tertiary level, regardless of age, as a percentage of the school-age population.

Expected years of schooling

The term “mean years of schooling” is the average number of completed years of education of a country’s population, excluding years spent repeating individual grades.

Mean years of schooling

The term “mean years of schooling” is the average number of completed years of education of a country’s population, excluding years spent repeating individual grades.

E-Participation index

Digital technologies allow today to easily engage citizens in public decision-making processes and to let them participate in public consultations. The e-participation index (EPI) is derived as a supplementary index to the UN E-Government Survey. It extends the dimension of the Survey by focusing on the use of online services to facilitate provision of information by governments to citizens (“e-information sharing”), interaction with stakeholders (“e-consultation”), and engagement in decision-making processes (“e-decision making”).

The goal of e-participation initiatives should be to improve the citizen's access to information and public services; and promote participation in public decision-making which impacts the well-being of society, in general, and the individual, in particular.

Stage One (%)

E-information: Enabling participation by providing citizens with public information and access to information without or upon demand.

Stage Two (%)

E-decision-making: Empowering citizens through co-design of policy option and co-production of service components and delivery modalities.

Stage Three (%)

E-consultation: Engaging citizens in contributions to and deliberation on public policies and services.

Global Cybersecurity Index

Cybersecurity becomes an imperative as institutions are moving increasingly to digital platforms. Developed by International Telecom Union, The Global Cybersecurity Index (GCI) measures the commitment of countries to cybersecurity at a global level to raise awareness of the importance and different dimensions of the issue.

It is composed by five pillars – (i) Legal Measures, (ii) Technical Measures, (iii) Organizational Measures, (iv) Capacity Building, and (v) Cooperation.

Cybercrime substantive law

Substantive law refers to all categories of public and private law, including the law of contracts, real property, torts, wills, and criminal law that essentially creates, defines, and regulates rights.

Cybersecurity regulations

Regulation is rule based and meant to carry out a specific piece of legislation. Regulations are enforced usually by a regulatory agency formed or mandated to carry out the purpose or provisions of a legislation. Cybersecurity regulation designates the principles, to be abided by various stakeholders, emanating from and being part of the implementation of laws dealing with data protection, breach notification, cybersecurity certification/standardization requirements, implementation of cybersecurity measures, cybersecurity audit requirements, privacy protection, child online protection, digital signatures and e-transactions, and the liability of Internet service providers.

Containment or curbing of spam

National CERT/CIRT/ CSIRT

CIRT-CSIRT-CERT: computer incident response teams, staffed concrete organizational entities that are assigned the responsibility for coordinating and supporting the response to computer security events or incidents on national or government level.

National framework for implementation of cybersecurity standards

Adopted a national framework (or frameworks) for the implementation of internationally recognized cybersecurity standards within the public sector (government agencies) and within the critical infrastructure (even if operated by the private sector). These standards include, but are not limited to, those developed by the following agencies: ISO, ITU, IETF, IEEE, ATIS, OASIS, 3GPP, 3GPP2, IAB, ISOC, ISG, ISI, ETSI, ISF, RFC, ISA, IEC, NERC, NIST, FIPS, PCI DSS, etc.

Sectorial CERT/CIRT/ CSIRT

A sectoral CIRT/CSIRT/CERT is an entity that responds to computer security or cybersecurity incidents which affect a specific sector. Sectoral CERTs are usually established for critical sectors such as healthcare, public utilities, academia, emergency services and the financial sector. The sectoral CERT provides its services to constituents from a single sector only.

Technical mechanisms and capabilities to address spam

Cloud for cybersecurity purposes in the public sector

Child Online Protection

This indicator measures the existence of a national agency dedicated to Child Online Protection, the availability of a national telephone number to report issues associated with children online, any technical mechanisms and capabilities deployed to help protect children online, and any activity by government or non-government institutions to provide knowledge and support to stakeholders on how to protect children online telephone number, email address, web forms and other, where the interested parties can report incidents or concerns related to Child Online Protection (COP).

National Cybersecurity Strategy

The development of policy to promote cybersecurity as one of national top priorities. A national cybersecurity strategy should define the maintaining of resilient and reliable national critical information infrastructures including the security and the safety of citizens; protect the material and intellectual assets of citizens, organizations and the nation; respond, prevent cyber-attacks against critical infrastructures; and minimize damage and recovery time from cyber-attacks.

Responsible Agency

A responsible agency for implementing the national cybersecurity strategy/policy can include permanent committees, official working groups, advisory councils, or cross-disciplinary centers. Such a body may also be directly responsible for the national CIRT. The responsible agency may exist within the government and may have the authority to compel other agencies and national bodies to implement policies and adopt standards.

Cybersecurity metrics

Existence of any officially recognized national or sector‑specific benchmarking exercises or referential used to measure cybersecurity development, risk-assessment strategies, cybersecurity audits, and other tools and activities for a rating or evaluating resulting performance for future improvements. For example, based on ISO/IEC 27004, which is concerned with measurements relating to information security management.

Public cybersecurity awareness campaigns

Public awareness includes efforts to promote campaigns to reach as many citizens as possible as well as making use of NGOs, institutions, organizations, ISPs, libraries, local trade organizations, community centers, community colleges and adult education programs, schools and parent-teacher organizations to get the message across about safe cyber-behavior online. This includes actions such as setting up portals and websites to promote awareness, disseminating support materials and other relevant activities.

Training for Cybersecurity Professionals

The existence of sector-specific professional training programs for raising awareness for the general public (i.e., national cybersecurity awareness day, week, or month), promoting cybersecurity education for the workforce of different profiles (technical, social sciences, etc.) and promoting certification of professionals in either the public or the private sector. It also includes cybersecurity training for law enforcement officers, judicial and other legal actors designate professional and technical training that can be recurring for police officers, enforcement agents, judges, solicitors, barristers, attorneys, lawyers, paralegals and other persons of the legal and law enforcement profession. This indicator also includes the existence of a government-approved (or endorsed) framework (or frameworks) for the certification and accreditation of professionals by internationally recognized cybersecurity standards. These certifications, accreditations, and standards include, but are not limited to, the following: Cloud Security knowledge (Cloud Security Alliance), CISSP, SSCP, CSSLP CBK, Cybersecurity Forensic Analyst (ISC²), and other.

Educational programs/academic curricula in cybersecurity

Existence and the promotion of national education courses and programs to train the younger generation in cybersecurity-related skills and professions in schools, colleges, universities and other learning institutes. Cybersecurity-related professions include, but are not limited to, cryptanalysts, digital forensics experts, incident responders, security architects and penetration testers.

Educational programs/academic curricula in cybersecurity

Existence and the promotion of national education courses and programs to train the younger generation in cybersecurity-related skills and professions in schools, colleges, universities and other learning institutes. Cybersecurity-related professions include, but are not limited to, cryptanalysts, digital forensics experts, incident responders, security architects and penetration testers.

Research and development programs

This indicator measures the investment into national cybersecurity research and development programs at institutions that could be private, public, academic, non-governmental, or international. It also considers the presence of a nationally recognized institutional body overseeing the program. Cybersecurity research programs include but are not limited to, malware analysis, cryptography research, and research into system vulnerabilities and security models and concepts. Cybersecurity development programs refer to the development of hardware or software solutions that include but are not limited to firewalls, intrusion prevention systems, honey pots, and hardware security modules. The presence of an overarching national body to increase coordination among the various institutions and the sharing of resources is required.

Government incentive mechanisms

This indicator looks at any incentive efforts by the government to encourage capacity building in the field of cybersecurity, whether through tax breaks, grants, funding, loans, disposal of facilities, and other economic and financial motivators, including dedicated and nationally recognized institutional body overseeing cybersecurity capacity-building activities. Incentives increase the demand for cybersecurity-related services and products, which improves defenses against cyber threats.

National cybersecurity industry

A favorable economic, political, and social environment supporting cybersecurity development incentivizes the growth of a private sector around cybersecurity. The existence of public awareness campaigns, workforce development, capacity building, and government incentives drive a market for cybersecurity products and services. The existence of a home-grown cybersecurity industry is a testament to such a favorable environment and drives the growth of cybersecurity start-ups and associated cyber-insurance markets.

Bilateral cybersecurity agreements

Bilateral agreements (one-to-one agreements) refer to any officially recognized national or sector‑specific partnerships for sharing cybersecurity information or assets across borders by the government with one other foreign government and regional entity (i.e., the cooperation or exchange of information, expertise, technology and other resources). The indicator also measures whether information sharing of threat intelligence. Capacity building refers to the sharing of professional tools, advanced envelopment of experts, and others.

Cybersecurity multilateral agreements

Multilateral agreements (one to multiparty agreements) refers to any officially recognized national or sector-specific programs for sharing cybersecurity information or assets across borders by the government with multiple foreign governments or international organizations (i.e. the cooperation or exchange of information, expertise, technology and other resources).

Government participation in international cybersecurity mechanisms

It may also include ratification of international agreements regarding cybersecurity, such as African Union Convention on Cyber Security and Personal Data Protection, Budapest Convention on Cybercrime and others.

Partnerships with the private sector (PPPs)

Public‑private partnerships (PPP) refer to ventures between the public and private sector. This performance indicator measures the number of officially recognized national or sector‑specific PPPs for sharing cybersecurity information and assets (people, processes, tools) between the public and private sector (i.e. official partnerships for the cooperation or exchange of information, expertise, technology and/or resources), whether nationally or internationally

Inter agency cooperation

This performance indicator refers to any official partnerships between the various government agencies within the nation state (does not refer to international partnerships). This can designate partnerships for information- or asset-sharing between ministries, departments, programs and other public sector institutions.

Best practice

Global Innovation Index

To take full advantage of innovation on national level, a mature ecosystem is needed. Developed by World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), the Global Innovation Index (GII) measures the innovation ecosystem on national level by covering 3 dimensions: innovation input, innovation output and innovation efficiency.

Operational stability for businesses

Index that measures the likelihood and severity of political, legal, operational or security risks affecting business operations. Scores are annualized, standardized and aggregated for end Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4.

Government effectiveness

Index that reflects perceptions of the quality of public services, the quality of the civil service and the degree of its independence from political pressures, the quality of policy formulation and implementation, and the credibility of the government’s commitment to such policies.

Regulatory quality

Index that reflects perceptions of the ability of the government to formulate and implement sound policies and regulations that permit and promote private sector development.

Rule of law

Index that reflects perceptions of the extent to which agents have confidence in and abide by the rules of society, and in particular the quality of contract enforcement, property rights, the police, and the courts, as well as the likelihood of crime and violence.

Cost of redundancy dismissal

Sum of notice period and severance pay for redundancy dismissal (salary in weeks, averages for workers with 1, 5, and 10 years of tenure, with a minimum threshold of 8 weeks) Redundancy costs measure the cost of advance notice requirements and severance payments due when terminating a redundant worker, expressed in weeks of salary.

Ease of starting a business

Doing Business records all procedures officially required, or commonly done in practice, for an entrepreneur to start up and formally operate an industrial or commercial business, as well as the time and cost to complete these procedures and the paid-in minimum capital requirement.

Ease of doing insolvency

The ranking of economies on the ease of resolving insolvency is determined by sorting their scores. These scores are the simple average of the scores for the recovery rate and the strength of insolvency framework index. The recovery rate is recorded as cents on the dollar recovered by secured creditors through reorganization, liquidation, or debt enforcement (foreclosure or receivership) proceedings.

Policies for doing business

The extent to which governments ensure a stable policy environment for doing business.

Entrepreneurship policies and culture

Average perception scores (five-year average) of experts on entrepreneurial policies and entrepreneurial culture. Experts in different fields assess conditions for entrepreneurship in their country via statements (1= completely false; 10 =completely true).

Expenditure on education

Total general (local, regional and central) government expenditure on education (current, capital, and transfers), expressed as a percentage of GDP.

Government funding per secondary student

Total general (local, regional and central, current and capital) initial government funding of education per student, which includes transfers paid (such as scholarships to students), but excludes transfers received, in this case international transfers to government for education (when foreign donors provide education sector budget support or other support integrated in the government budget). This is then expressed as a share of GDP per capita, in US$.

School life expectancy

Total number of years of schooling that a child of a certain age can expect to receive in the future, assuming that the probability of his or her being enrolled in school at any particular age is equal to the current enrolment ratio for that age.

PISA scales in reading, math and science

PISA is the OECD’s (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) Program for International Student Assessment. PISA measures 15-year-olds’ ability to use their reading, mathematics and science knowledge and skills. Results from PISA indicate the quality and equity of learning outcomes attained around the world.

Pupil-teacher ratio, secondary

The number of pupils enrolled in secondary school divided by the number of secondary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).A high pupil-teacher ratio suggests that each teacher has to be responsible for a large number of pupils. In other words, the higher the pupil/ teacher ratio, the lower the relative access of pupils to teachers.

Tertiary enrolment

The ratio of total tertiary enrolment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the tertiary level of education. Tertiary education, whether or not at an advanced research qualification, normally requires, as a minimum condition of admission, the successful completion of education at the secondary level.

Graduates in Science and engineering

The share of all tertiary-level graduates in natural sciences, mathematics, statistics, information and technology, manufacturing, engineering, and construction as a percentage of all tertiary-level graduates.

Tertiary inbound mobility

The number of students from abroad studying in a given country as a percentage of the total tertiary-level enrolment in that country.

Gross expenditure on R&D (GERD)

Total domestic intramural expenditure on R&D during a given period as a percentage of GDP. “Intramural R&D expenditure” is all expenditure for R&D performed within a statistical unit or sector of the economy during a specific period, whatever the source of funds

Global RnD companies, average expenditure, top 3

Average expenditure on R&D of the top three global companies. If a country has fewer than three global companies listed, the figure is either the average of the sum of the two companies listed or the total for a single listed company. A score of 0 is given to countries with no listed companies.

QS university ranking average score of top 3 universities

Average score of the top three universities per country. If fewer than three universities are listed in the QS ranking of the global top 1000 universities, the sum of the scores of the listed universities is divided by three, thus implying a score of zero for the non-listed universities.

Researchers FTE

Researchers per million population, FTE. Researchers in R&D are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods, or systems and in the management of the projects concerned. Postgraduate PhD students (ISCED97 level 6) engaged in R&D are included.

ICT access

The ICT access index, previously part of the ITU ICT Development Index, is a composite index that weights five ICT indicators (20% each): (1) Fixed telephone subscriptions per 100 inhabitants; (2) Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions per 100 inhabitants; (3) International Internet bandwidth (bit/s) per Internet user; (4) Percentage of households with a computer; and (5) Percentage of households with Internet access.

ICT use

The ICT use index, previously part of the ITU ICT Development Index, is a composite index that weights three ICT indicators (33% each): (1) Percentage of individuals using the Internet; (2) Fixed (wired)-broadband Internet subscriptions per 100 inhabitants; (3) Active mobile broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants.

Government online service

The Online Services Index component of the E-Government Development Index is a composite indicator measuring the use of ICTs by governments in delivering public services at the national level.

online e-participation

The E-Participation Index (EPI) is derived as a supplementary index to the United Nations E-Government Survey. It extends the dimension of the Survey by focusing on the government use of online services in providing information to its citizens or “e-information sharing”, interacting with stakeholders or “e-consultation” and engaging in decision-making processes or “e-decision-making.”

Electricity output

Electricity output

Logistics performance

Logistics performance: A multidimensional assessment of logistics performance, the Logistics Performance Index (LPI) ranks 160 countries combining data on six core performance components into a single aggregate measure—including customs performance, infrastructure quality, and timeliness of shipments. The LPI’s six components are: (1) the efficiency of customs and border management clearance (“Customs”); (2) the quality of trade and transport infrastructure (“Infrastructure”); (3) the ease of arranging competitively priced shipments (“International shipments”); (4) the competence and quality of logistics services (“Services Quality”); (5) the ability to track and trace consignments (“Tracking and tracing”); and (6) the frequency with which shipments reach consignees within scheduled or expected delivery times (“Timeliness”). The LPI consists therefore of both qualitative and quantitative measures and helps build profiles of logistics friendliness for these countries.

Gross capital formation

Gross capital formation is expressed as a ratio of total investment in current local currency to GDP in current local currency. Investment or gross capital formation is measured by the total value of the gross fixed capital formation and changes in inventories and acquisitions less disposals of valuables for a unit or sector, on the basis of the System of National Accounts (SNA) of 1993.

GDP per unit of energy use

Purchasing power parity gross domestic product (PPP$ GDP) per kilogram of oil equivalent of energy use. Total primary energy supply (TPES) is made up of production + imports - exports - international marine bunkers - international aviation bunkers +/– stock changes.

Environmental performance

These indicators provide a gauge at a national scale of how close countries are to established environmental policy targets. The EPI offers a scorecard that highlights leaders and laggards in environmental performance and provides practical guidance for countries that aspire to move toward a sustainable future.

ISO 14001 environmental certificates

ISO 14001:2015 specifies the requirements for an environmental management system that an organization can use to enhance its environmental performance. ISO 14001 is intended for use by an organization seeking to manage its environmental responsibilities in a systematic manner that contributes to the environmental pillar of sustainability. ISO 14001 helps an organization achieve the intended outcomes of its environmental management system, which provide value for the environment, the organization itself, and interested parties.

Ease of getting credit

These scores are the score for the sum of the strength of the legal rights index (range 0–12) and the depth of credit information index (range 0–8). Doing Business measures the legal rights of borrowers and lenders with respect to secured transactions through one set of indicators and the reporting of credit information through another. The first set of indicators measures whether certain features that facilitate lending exist within the applicable collateral and bankruptcy laws. The second set measures the coverage, scope, and accessibility of credit information available through credit reporting service providers such as credit bureaus or credit registries. Although Doing Business compiles data on getting credit for public registry coverage (% of adults) and for private bureau coverage (% of adults), these indicators are not included in the ranking.

Domestic credit to private sector

Domestic credit to private sector” refers to financial resources provided to the private sector by financial corporations, such as through loans, purchases of nonequity securities, and trade credits and other accounts receivable that establish a claim for repayment. For some countries, these claims include credit to public enterprises. The financial corporations include monetary authorities and deposit money banks, as well as other financial corporations where data are available (including corporations that do not accept transferable deposits but do incur such liabilities as time and savings deposits).

Microfinance institutions gross loan portfolio

Combined gross loan balances of microfinance institutions (current US$) in a country as a percentage of its GDP (current US$).

Finance for startups and scaleups

Average perception scores (five-year average) of experts on finance for starting and growing firms. Experts in different fields assess conditions for entrepreneurship in their country via statements (1=completely false; 10 = completely true).

Loans from microfinance institutions, % GDP

Outstanding loans from all microfinance institutions in a country as a percentage of its GDP

Ease of protecting minority investors

This ranking is the sum of the scores for the extent of conflict of interest regulation index and the extent of shareholder governance index. The extent of conflict of interest regulation index measures the protection of shareholders against directors’ misuse of corporate assets for personal gain by distinguishing three dimensions of regulation that address conflicts of interest: transparency of related-party transactions (extent of disclosure index), shareholders ‘ability to sue and hold directors liable for self-dealing (extent of director liability index), and access to evidence and allocation of legal expenses in shareholder litigation(ease of shareholder suits index).

Market capitalization

Market capitalization (also known as “market value”) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding (including their several classes) for listed domestic companies. Investment funds, unit trusts, and companies whose only business goal is to hold shares of other listed companies are excluded.

Venture capital investors, deals

Thomson Reuters Eikon data on private equity deals, per deal, with information on the location of investment, investment company, investor firms, funds, and crowdfunding, among other details.

Venture capital recipients, deals

Venture capital received, value, % GDP

Refinitiv data on private equity deals, per deal, with information on the location of the firm investing in a venture capital (VC) deal, among other details. The data represent the three-year average of 2019–21 deals invested in and are reported per billion PPP$ GDP.

Applied tariff rate, weighted average

"Weighted mean applied tariff” is the average of effectively applied rates weighted by the product import shares corresponding to each partner country. Data are classified using the Harmonized System of trade at the six- or eight-digit level. Tariff line data were matched to Standard International Trade Classification (SITC) revision 3 codes to define commodity groups and import weights. To the extent possible, specific rates have been converted to their ad valorem equivalent rates and have been included in the calculation of weighted mean tariffs. Effectively applied tariff rates at the six- and eight-digit product level are averaged for products in each commodity group. When the effectively applied rate is unavailable, the most favored nation rate is used instead.

Domestic industry diversification

Average answer to the survey question: In your country, how intense is competition in the local markets? [1 = not intense at all; 7 = extremely intense

Domestic market scale

The domestic market size is measured by gross domestic product (GDP) based on the purchasing-power-parity (PPP) valuation of country GDP, in current international dollars (billions).

Knowledge-intensive employment

Sum of people in categories 1 to 3 as a percentage of total people employed, according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO). Categories included in ISCO-08 are: 1 Managers, 2 Professionals, and 3 Technicians and associate professionals.

Firms offering formal training

The percentage of firms offering formal training programs for their permanent, full-time employees in the sample of firms in the World Bank’s Enterprise Survey in each country.

GERD performed by business enterprise

Gross expenditure on R&D performed by business enterprise as a percentage of GDP

GERD financed by business enterprise

Gross expenditure on R&D financed by business enterprise as a percentage of total gross expenditure on R&D.

Females employed with advanced degrees

The percentage of females employed with advanced degrees out of total employed. The employed comprise all persons of working age who, during a specified brief period, were in one of the following categories: (1) paid employment (whether at work or with a job but not at work); or (2) self-employment (whether at work or with an enterprise but not at work).

University/industry research collaboration

Average answer to the survey question: In your country, to what extent do businesses and universities collaborate on research and development (R&D) [1 = do not collaborate at all; 7 = collaborate extensively]

State of cluster development

Average answer to the survey question on the role of clusters in the economy: In your country, how widespread are well-developed and deep clusters (geographic concentrations of firms, suppliers, producers of related products and services, and specialized institutions in a particular field)? [1 = non-existent; 7 = widespread in many fields]

GERD financed by abroad

Percentage of gross expenditure on R&D financed by abroad (billions, national currency)—that is, with foreign financing as a percentage of GDP (billions, national currency).

Joint venture/strategic alliance deals

Thomson Reuters data on joint ventures/strategic alliances deals, per deal, with details on the country of origin of partner firms, among others. The series corresponds to a query on joint venture/strategic alliance deals from January 1, 2019 to December 31, 2019, for a total of 10,535 deals announced in 2019, with firms headquartered in 122 GII participating economies. Each participating nation of each company in a deal (n countries per deal) gets, per deal,a score equivalent to 1/n (with the effect that all country scores add up to 10,535). The data are reported per billion PPP$ GDP.

Patent families filed in two offices

A “patent family” is a set of interrelated patent applications filed in one or more countries or jurisdictions to protect the same invention. Patent families containing applications filed in at least two different offices is a subset of patent families where protection of the same invention is sought in at least two different countries.

Innovation linkage

Intellectual property payments

Value according to the Extended Balance of Payments Services Classification EBOPS 2010—that is, code SH charges for the use of intellectual property not included elsewhere as a percentage of total trade. “Total trade” is defined as the sum of total imports code G goods and code SOX commercial services (excluding government goods and services not included elsewhere) plus total exports of code G goods and code SOX commercial services (excluding government goods and services not included elsewhere), divided by 2. According to the sixth edition of the International Monetary Fund’s Balance of Payments Manual, the item “Goods” covers general merchandise, net exports of goods under merchanting, and non-monetary gold.

High tech imports

High-technology imports as a percentage of total trade. High-technology exports and imports contain technical products with a high intensity of R&D, defined by the Eurostat classification, which is based on Standard International Trade Classification (SITC) Revision 4 and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) definition. Commodities belong to the following sectors: aerospace; computers & office machines; electronics; telecommunications; pharmacy; scientific instruments; electrical machinery; chemistry; non-electrical machinery; and armament.

ICT services imports

Telecommunications, computer and information services as a percentage of total trade according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)’s Extended Balance of Payments Services Classification EBOPS 2010, coded SI: Telecommunications, computer and information services.

Foreign direct investment net inflows

Foreign direct investment is the average of the most recent three years of net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock)in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors, and is divided by GDP.

Research talent in business enterprise

Full-time equivalent (FTE) researchers in the business enterprise sector” refers to researchers as professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods, and systems, as well as in the management of these projects, broken down by the sectors in which they are employed (business enterprise, government, higher education, and private non-profit organizations).

Patent applications by origin

A resident patent application refers to an application filed with an IP office for or on behalf of the first-named applicant’s country of residence. For example, an application filed with the Japan Patent Office (JPO) by a resident of Japan is considered a resident application for Japan.

PCT applications by origin

A PCT application refers to an international patent applications filed through the WIPO-administered Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT). The PCT system makes it possible to seek patent protection for an invention simultaneously in a number of countries by filing a single international patent application. The origin of PCT applications is defined by the residence of the first-named applicant.

Utility models by origin

Terms and conditions for granting a utility model are slightly different from those for normal patents and include a shorter term of protection and less stringent patentability requirements. A utility model is sometimes referred to in certain countries as “petty patents”, “short-term patents”, or “innovation patents”. A resident UM application refers to an application filed with an IP office for or on behalf of the first-Named applicant’s country of residence.

Scientific and technical publications

Articles are counted on a count basis (rather than a fractional basis)—that is, for articles with collaborating institutions from multiple countries/economies, each country/economy receives credit on the basis of its participating institutions. The data are reported per billion PPP$ GDP.

Citable documents H index

The H-index expresses the journal’s number of articles (H) that have received at least H citations. It quantifies both journal scientific productivity and scientific impact. The H-index is tabulated from the number of citations received in subsequent years by articles published in a given year, divided by the number of articles published that year.

Labor productivity growth

Growth rate of real GDP per person employed (constant 1990 PPP$), average of three last available years. Growth of gross domestic product (GDP) per person engaged provides a measure of labor productivity (defined as output per unit of labor input). GDP per person employed is GDP divided by total employment in the economy. PPP$ GDP is Constant 1990 in U.S. dollars, expressed in 1990 GK PPP, Millions. While this is a relatively robust measure, it does not correct for part-time jobs as it merely counts people who are employed. Hence, GDP per person employed is somewhat underestimated in countries with a higher share of part-time workers, which are mostly OECD countries.

New business density

Number of newly registered corporations per 1,000 working-age (15–64 years old). The units of measurement are private, formal sector companies with limited liability.

Total computer software spending

Computer software spending includes the total value of purchased or leased packaged software such as operating systems, database systems, programming tools, utilities, and applications. It excludes expenditures for internal software development and outsourced custom software development.

High-tech manufacturing

High-tech and medium-high-tech output as a percentage of total manufactures output, on the basis of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) classification of Technology Intensity Definition.

Unicorn valuation

Total valuation of all unicorns in a country as a percentage of GDP. A unicorn company is a private company with a valuation over $1 billion. Unicorn companies as of April 7, 2023, with 1,207 unicorns worldwide.

ISO 9001 quality/bn PPP$ GDP

ISO 9001:2015 specifies requirements for a quality management system when an organization needs to demonstrate its ability to consistently provide products and services that meet customer and applicable statutory and regulatory requirements, and aims to enhance customer satisfaction through the effective application of the system, including processes for improving the system and assuring conformity to customer and applicable statutory and regulatory requirements.

IP receipts

Value according to the Extended Balance of Payments Services Classification EBOPS 2010—that is, code SH charges for the use of intellectual property not included elsewhere as a percentage of total trade. Receipts are between residents and non-residents for the use of proprietary rights (such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, industrial processes, and designs including trade secrets, franchises), and for licenses to reproduce or distribute (or both) intellectual property embodied in produced originals or prototypes (such as copyrights on books and manuscripts, computer software, cinematographic works, and sound recordings) and related rights (such as for live performances and television, cable, or satellite broadcast).

High Tech exports

High-technology exports minus re-exports (% of total trade):High-technology exports and imports contain technical products with a high intensity of R&D, defined by the Eurostat classification, which is based on Standard International Trade Classification (SITC).

ICT services export

Telecommunications, computer and information services (% of total trade) according to the Extended Balance of Payments Services Classification EBOPS 2010,

FDI outflows

Foreign direct investment” refers to the average of the most recent three years of direct investment equity flows in an economy. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, and other capital. Direct investment is a category of cross-border investment associated with a resident in one economy having control or a significant degree of influence on the management of an enterprise that is resident in another economy.

Production and export complexity

Trademark application class count by origin

A “trademark” is a sign used by the owner of certain products or provider of certain services to distinguish them from the products or services of other companies. A trademark can consist of words and/or combinations of words, such as slogans, Names, logos, figures and images, letters, numbers, sounds, and moving images, or a combination thereof.

Industrial design by origin

Sum of Global Brand Values, top 5,000 as a percentage of GDP. Brand Finance calculates brand value using the Royalty Relief methodology, which determines the value a company would be willing to pay to license its brand as if it did not own it. The methodology is compliant with industry standards set in ISO 10668. ISO This approach involves estimating the future revenue attributable to a brand and calculating a royalty rate that would be charged for the use of the brand.

ICTs and business model creation

An “industrial design” is a set of exclusive rights granted by law to applicants for protecting the Ornamental or aesthetic aspect of their products. An industrial design is valid for a limited period of time and within a limited territory. A resident industrial design application refers to an application filed with the IP office for or on behalf of the applicant’s country of residence.

ICTs and organizational model creation

Average answer to the question: In your country, to what extent do ICTs enable new organizational models (e.g., virtual teams, remote working, telecommuting)

Global brand value, top 5,000

Intangible asset intensity, top 15, %

The data cover a global list of firms for which intangible asset value and total firm value are observed. Only the top 15 firms of each economy are considered, ranked by intangible assets in absolute terms (in USD). Countries with fewer than 15 firms are not considered. For each firm, the intangible asset value is divided by the firm’s total value before computing the arithmetic mean across the top 15 firms for each economy

Cultural and creative services exports

World Trade Organization

National feature films produced

A film with a running time of 60 minutes or longer. It includes works of fiction, animation, and documentaries. It is intended for commercial exhibition in cinemas. Feature films produced exclusively for television broadcasting, as well as newsreels and advertising films, are excluded.

Entertainment and media market

The Global Entertainment & Media Outlook (the Outlook) is a comprehensive source of global analyses and five-year forecasts of consumer and advertising spending across 53 territories for 14 entertainment and media segments.

Printing publications and other media output

Printing, and reproduction of recorded media output (ISIC Revision 4 Division 18, group 181 with class 1811 and 1812 and group 182 with class 1820) as a percentage of total manufacturing output.

Creative goods exports

Total value of creative goods exports (current US$) over total trade.

Generic TLD

A generic top-level domain (gTLD) is one of the categories of top-level domains (TLDs) maintained by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) for use on the Internet. Generic TLDs can be unrestricted (.com, .info, .net, and.org) or restricted—that is, used on the basis of fulfilling eligibility criteria (.biz, .Name, and .pro). Of these, the statistic covers the five generic domains .biz, .info, .org,.net, and .com.

Country code TLD

A country-code top-level domain (ccTLD) is one of the categories of top-level domains (TLDs) maintained by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) for use on the Internet. Country-code TLDs are two-letter domains especially designated for a particular economy, country, or autonomous territory"

Wikipedia yearly edits

Data extracted from Wikimedia Foundation’s internal data sources. Data reflects economies with more than 100,000 edit counts in 2019; The data exclude both contributions to the extent that is identifiable in the data sources. Data are reported per million population 15–69 years old.

Mobile apps creation

Global downloads of mobile apps, by origin of the headquarters of the developer/firm, scaled by PPP$ GDP (billions). Global downloads are compiled by App Annie Intelligence, public data sources, and the company’s proprietary forecast model based on data from Google play store and iOS App store in each country between January 1, 2019 and December 31, 2019.

GitHub commits/mn pop. 15–69

GitHub is the world’s largest host of source code, and a commit is the term used for a change on this platform. One or more commits can be saved (or pushed) to projects (or repositories). Thus, “GitHub commit pushes received” refers to the number of batched changes received by publicly-available projects on GitHub within a specific economy.

Global Knowledge Index

The Global Knowledge Index (GKI) provides data that can help countries and decision makers to understand and respond to related transformations and challenges related to knowledge and innovation. It assesses seven sub-indices, chosen both for their correlative interactive relationships and their centrality to the process of cognitive and developmental progress.

net enrollment rate in primary education

Measures the actual school participation of official school age population for primary education

net enrollment rate in lower secondary education

Measures the actual school participation of official school age population for lower secondary education

net enrollment rate in upper secondary education

Measures the actual school participation of official school age population for upper secondary education

years of compulsory education in primary and secondary

Number of years of primary and secondary education to which children are legally entitled.

completion rate in upper secondary education

Percentage of a cohort of children or young people aged 3-5 years above the intended age for the last grade of upper secondary education who have completed that grade.

gross intake ratio to the last grade of lower secondary education

Total number of new entrants into the last grade of lower secondary general education as a percentage of the population at the intended entrance age to the last grade of lower secondary general education.

assessment of 15-year-old students in math, science and reading

The OECD Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) assesses the extent to which 15-year-old students near the end of their compulsory education have acquired key knowledge and skills that are essential for full participation in modern societies.

learning-adjusted years of schooling

Compares years of schooling across countries, while adjusting by the amount of learning that takes place during those years.

government expenditure on primary education (% gdp)

Total general (local, regional and central) government expenditure on primary education (current, capital and transfers), expressed as a percentage of GDP.

government expenditure on secondary education (% gdp)

Total general (local, regional and central) government expenditure on secondary education (current, capital and transfers), expressed as a percentage of GDP.

government funding per primary student (% gdp per capita)

Total initial funding from government (central, regional, local) for primary education per student enrolled at that level in a given year.

government funding per secondary student (% gdp per capita)

Total initial funding from government (central, regional, local) for secondary education per student enrolled at that level in a given year. The results are expressed as a percentage of GDP per capita.

pupil-trained teacher ratio in primary education

Average number of pupils per trained teacher in primary education based on headcounts of both pupils and teachers in a given academic year.

pupil-trained teacher ratio in secondary education

Average number of pupils per trained teacher in secondary education based on headcounts of both pupils and teachers in a given academic year.

schools with access to computers in primary education (%)

Measures the use of computers to support course delivery or independent teaching and learning needs in primary education.

schools with access to computers in secondary education (%)

Measures the use of computers to support course delivery or independent teaching and learning needs in secondary education

gross enrollment ratio in early childhood education

Total enrolment in early childhood education regardless of age expressed as a percentage of the population of the official age.

proportion of children who are developmentally on track

Measures the proportion of children aged 24-59 months who have achieved the minimum number of milestones expected, defined as follows: (i) health - gross motor development, fine motor development and self-care; (ii) learning expressive language - literacy, numeracy, pre-writing and executive functioning; and (iii) psychosocial well-being - emotional skills, social skills, internalizing behavior and externalizing behavior.

proportion of children with stimulating home learning environments

Evaluates learning environment to ensure that it promotes and does not harm children's development.

pupil-trained teacher ratio in pre-primary education

Average number of pupils per trained teacher in pre-primary education based on headcounts of both pupils and teachers in a given academic year.

completion rate in upper secondary education, gender parity

Percentage of a cohort of children or young people aged 3-5 years above the intended age for the last grade of upper secondary education who have completed that grade. The gender parity index represents the ratio of the variable value for one group (females) to that of the other (males).

completion rate in upper secondary education, wealth parity

Percentage of a cohort of children or young people aged 3-5 years above the intended age for the last grade of upper secondary education who have completed that grade.

completion rate in upper secondary education, location parity

Percentage of a cohort of children or young people aged 3-5 years above the intended age for the last grade of upper secondary education who have completed that grade.

firms offering formal training (%)

The percentage of firms offering formal training programs for their permanent, full-time employees.

Labor force with short-cycle tertiary education (%)

Measures the labor force participation rate for persons who attained a short-cycle tertiary education level.

participation rate in formal and non-formal education and training

Percentage of youth and adults (15-24 years and 25-64 years) participating in formal or non-formal education or training in the last 12 months as a percentage of the population of the same age bracket.

government expenditure on vocational education (%)

Government expenditure on secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary vocational education, expressed as a percentage of total government expenditure on all sectors.

Share of students enrolled in post-secondary vocational programs

Total number of students enrolled in vocational programs in post-secondary non-tertiary education, expressed as a percentage of the total number of students enrolled in all programs (vocational and general) at that level.

share of students enrolled in post-secondary vocational programmes

Total number of students enrolled in vocational programmes in post-secondary non-tertiary education, expressed as a percentage of the total number of students enrolled in all programmes (vocational and general) at that level.

extent of staff training

In your country, to what extent do companies invest in training and employee development? [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent].

quality of vocational training

In your country, how do you assess the quality of vocational training? [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent].

ratio of high-skill tvet occupations earnings to average wage

The earnings of employees relate to the gross remuneration in cash and in kind paid to employees, as a rule at regular intervals, for time worked or work done together with remuneration for time not worked, such as annual vacation, other type of paid leave or holidays. High-skill TVET occupations comprise technicians and associate professionals according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO 08,3).

ratio of medium-skill tvet occupations earnings to average wage

The earnings of employees relate to the gross remuneration in cash and in kind paid to employees, as a rule at regular intervals, for time worked or work done together with remuneration for time not worked, such as annual vacation, other type of paid leave or holidays. Medium-skill TVET occupations comprise clerical support workers (ISCO-08,4), craft and related trade workers (ISCO-08,7) and plant and machine operators and assemblers (ISCO-08,8) according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations.

firms constrained with inadequately educated workforce (%)

To what degree is an inadequately educated workforce an obstacle to the current operations of this establishment?

employment educational mismatch (%)

The variable is calculated by summing the number of workers who are under-educated with the number of workers who are over-educated. The sum is divided by the total number of workers.

proportion of skilled production workers

Skilled workers comprise workers in highly skilled production jobs, professionals whose tasks require extensive theoretical and technical knowledge, and workers in semi-skilled production jobs, technicians whose tasks require some level of mechanical or technical knowledge.

unemployment rate with vocational education

The unemployed comprise all persons of working age who were: a) without work during the reference period, i.e. were not in paid employment or self-employment; b) currently available for work, i.e. were available for paid employment or self-employment during the reference period; and c) seeking work, i.e. had taken specific steps in a specified recent period to seek paid employment or self-employment.

share of tvet occupations

Measures the share of workers in TVET occupations among all workers. TVET occupations are categorized according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO).

manufacturing employment (%)

Conveys the share of employment in manufacturing. Employment in manufacturing is defined based on the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC).

enrollment in vocational education, gender parity

Percentage of young people aged 15-24 years participating in technical or vocational education either in formal or non-formal (e.g. work-based or other settings) education, on a given date or during a specified period.

vulnerable employment rate

The employed comprise all persons of working age who, during a specified brief period, were in one of the following categories: a) paid employment (whether at work or with a job but not at work); or b) self-employment (whether at work or with an enterprise but not at work).