Using international indices

ESCWA supports member States in streamlining economic planning and coordination across ministries and partners, and acts as regional policy advisor on the use of international indices for developing effective and transformational policies.

With ISPAR, ESCWA offers technical support in identifying strengths and weaknesses related to regional and international indicators towards more effective policymaking.

The selected indicators cover competitiveness, gender, business, technology and innovation.

View of Cairo. Photo: Sherif Moharram/unsplash
Technology readiness and innovation

Global Cybersecurity Index

Cybersecurity becomes an imperative as institutions are moving increasingly to digital platforms. Developed by International Telecom Union, The Global Cybersecurity Index (GCI) measures the commitment of countries to cybersecurity at a global level to raise awareness of the importance and different dimensions of the issue.

It is composed by five pillars – (i) Legal Measures, (ii) Technical Measures, (iii) Organizational Measures, (iv) Capacity Building, and (v) Cooperation.

Cybercrime substantive law

Substantive law refers to all categories of public and private law, including the law of contracts, real property, torts, wills, and criminal law that essentially creates, defines, and regulates rights.

Cybersecurity regulations

Regulation is rule based and meant to carry out a specific piece of legislation. Regulations are enforced usually by a regulatory agency formed or mandated to carry out the purpose or provisions of a legislation. Cybersecurity regulation designates the principles, to be abided by various stakeholders, emanating from and being part of the implementation of laws dealing with data protection, breach notification, cybersecurity certification/standardization requirements, implementation of cybersecurity measures, cybersecurity audit requirements, privacy protection, child online protection, digital signatures and e-transactions, and the liability of Internet service providers.

Containement or curbing of spam

National CERT/CIRT/ CSIRT

CIRT-CSIRT-CERT: computer incident response teams, staffed concrete organizational entities that are assigned the responsibility for coordinating and supporting the response to computer security events or incidents on national or government level.

National framework for implementation of cybersecurity standards

Adopted a national framework (or frameworks) for the implementation of internationally recognized cybersecurity standards within the public sector (government agencies) and within the critical infrastructure (even if operated by the private sector). These standards include, but are not limited to, those developed by the following agencies: ISO, ITU, IETF, IEEE, ATIS, OASIS, 3GPP, 3GPP2, IAB, ISOC, ISG, ISI, ETSI, ISF, RFC, ISA, IEC, NERC, NIST, FIPS, PCI DSS, etc.

Sectorial CERT/CIRT/ CSIRT

A sectoral CIRT/CSIRT/CERT is an entity that responds to computer security or cybersecurity incidents which affect a specific sector. Sectoral CERTs are usually established for critical sectors such as healthcare, public utilities, academia, emergency services and the financial sector. The sectoral CERT provides its services to constituents from a single sector only.

Technical mechanisms and capabilities to address spam

Cloud for cybersecurity purposes in the public sector

Child Online Protection

This indicator measures the existence of a national agency dedicated to Child Online Protection, the availability of a national telephone number to report issues associated with children online, any technical mechanisms and capabilities deployed to help protect children online, and any activity by government or non-government institutions to provide knowledge and support to stakeholders on how to protect children online telephone number, email address, web forms and other, where the interested parties can report incidents or concerns related to Child Online Protection (COP).

National Cybersecurity Strategy

The development of policy to promote cybersecurity as one of national top priorities. A national cybersecurity strategy should define the maintaining of resilient and reliable national critical information infrastructures including the security and the safety of citizens; protect the material and intellectual assets of citizens, organizations and the nation; respond, prevent cyber-attacks against critical infrastructures; and minimize damage and recovery time from cyber-attacks.

Responsible Agency

A responsible agency for implementing the national cybersecurity strategy/policy can include permanent committees, official working groups, advisory councils, or cross‑disciplinary centres. Such a body may also be directly responsible for the national CIRT. The responsible agency may exist within the government and may have the authority to compel other agencies and national bodies to implement policies and adopt standards.

Cybersecurity metrics

Existence of any officially recognized national or sector‑specific benchmarking exercises or referential used to measure cybersecurity development, risk-assessment strategies, cybersecurity audits, and other tools and activities for a rating or evaluating resulting performance for future improvements. For example, based on ISO/IEC 27004, which is concerned with measurements relating to information security management.

Public cybersecurity awareness campaigns

Public awareness includes efforts to promote campaigns to reach as many citizens as possible as well as making use of NGOs, institutions, organizations, ISPs, libraries, local trade organizations, community centres, community colleges and adult education programmes, schools and parent-teacher organizations to get the message across about safe cyber-behaviour online. This includes actions such as setting up portals and websites to promote awareness, disseminating support materials and other relevant activities.

Training for Cybersecurity Professionals

The existence of sector-specific professional training programs for raising awareness for the general public (i.e., national cybersecurity awareness day, week, or month), promoting cybersecurity education for the workforce of different profiles (technical, social sciences, etc.) and promoting certification of professionals in either the public or the private sector. It also includes cybersecurity training for law enforcement officers, judicial and other legal actors designate professional and technical training that can be recurring for police officers, enforcement agents, judges, solicitors, barristers, attorneys, lawyers, paralegals and other persons of the legal and law enforcement profession. This indicator also includes the existence of a government-approved (or endorsed) framework (or frameworks) for the certification and accreditation of professionals by internationally recognized cybersecurity standards. These certifications, accreditations, and standards include, but are not limited to, the following: Cloud Security knowledge (Cloud Security Alliance), CISSP, SSCP, CSSLP CBK, Cybersecurity Forensic Analyst (ISC²), and other.

Educational programs/academic curricula in cybersecurity

Existence and the promotion of national education courses and programmes to train the younger generation in cybersecurity-related skills and professions in schools, colleges, universities and other learning institutes. Cybersecurity-related professions include, but are not limited to, cryptanalysts, digital forensics experts, incident responders, security architects and penetration testers.

Educational programs/academic curricula in cybersecurity

Existence and the promotion of national education courses and programmes to train the younger generation in cybersecurity-related skills and professions in schools, colleges, universities and other learning institutes. Cybersecurity-related professions include, but are not limited to, cryptanalysts, digital forensics experts, incident responders, security architects and penetration testers.

Research and development programs

This indicator measures the investment into national cybersecurity research and development programs at institutions that could be private, public, academic, non-governmental, or international. It also considers the presence of a nationally recognized institutional body overseeing the program. Cybersecurity research programs include but are not limited to, malware analysis, cryptography research, and research into system vulnerabilities and security models and concepts. Cybersecurity development programs refer to the development of hardware or software solutions that include but are not limited to firewalls, intrusion prevention systems, honey pots, and hardware security modules. The presence of an overarching national body to increase coordination among the various institutions and the sharing of resources is required.

Government incentive mechanisms

This indicator looks at any incentive efforts by the government to encourage capacity building in the field of cybersecurity, whether through tax breaks, grants, funding, loans, disposal of facilities, and other economic and financial motivators, including dedicated and nationally recognized institutional body overseeing cybersecurity capacity-building activities. Incentives increase the demand for cybersecurity-related services and products, which improves defences against cyber threats.

National cybersecurity industry

A favourable economic, political, and social environment supporting cybersecurity development incentivizes the growth of a private sector around cybersecurity. The existence of public awareness campaigns, workforce development, capacity building, and government incentives drive a market for cybersecurity products and services. The existence of a home-grown cybersecurity industry is a testament to such a favourable environment and drives the growth of cybersecurity start-ups and associated cyber-insurance markets.

Bilateral cybersecurity agreements

Bilateral agreements (one-to-one agreements) refer to any officially recognized national or sector‑specific partnerships for sharing cybersecurity information or assets across borders by the government with one other foreign government and regional entity (i.e., the cooperation or exchange of information, expertise, technology and other resources). The indicator also measures whether information sharing of threat intelligence. Capacity building refers to the sharing of professional tools, advanced envelopment of experts, and others.

Cybersecurity multilateral agreements

Multilateral agreements (one to multiparty agreements) refers to any officially recognized national or sector‑specific programmes for sharing cybersecurity information or assets across borders by the government with multiple foreign governments or international organizations (i.e. the cooperation or exchange of information, expertise, technology and other resources).

Government participation in international cybersecurity mechanisms

It may also include ratification of international agreements regarding cybersecurity, such as African Union Convention on Cyber Security and Personal Data Protection, Budapest Convention on Cybercrime and others.

Partnerships with the private sector (PPPs)

Public‑private partnerships (PPP) refer to ventures between the public and private sector. This performance indicator measures the number of officially recognized national or sector‑specific PPPs for sharing cybersecurity information and assets (people, processes, tools) between the public and private sector (i.e. official partnerships for the cooperation or exchange of information, expertise, technology and/or resources), whether nationally or internationally

Inter agency cooperation

This performance indicator refers to any official partnerships between the various government agencies within the nation state (does not refer to international partnerships). This can designate partnerships for information- or asset-sharing between ministries, departments, programmes and other public sector institutions.

Best practice

ICT Development Index

ICTs could not positively impact national development unless there is an appropriate access and use of these technologies in the country. Produced by the International Telecom Union (ITU), The ICT Development Index (IDI), is a composite index that combines 11 indicators into one benchmark measure.

It is used to monitor and compare developments in information and communication technology (ICT) between countries and over time. IDI focuses on three aspects: ICT Access, Use and Impact.

Fixed telephone subscription per 100 inh

Fixed telephone subscription per 100 inh:The term “fixed-telephone subscriptions” refers to the sum of active analogue fixed-telephone lines, voice-over-Internet Protocol (VoIP) subscriptions, fixed wireless local loop subscriptions, Integrated Services Digital Network voice-channel equivalents and fixed public payphones. It includes all accesses over fixed infrastructure supporting voice telephony using copper wire, voice services using Protocol (IP) delivered over fixed (wired)- broadband infrastructure (e.g. digital subscriber line (DSL), fibre optic), and voice services provided over coaxial-cable television networks (cable modem). It also includes fixed wireless local loop connections, defined as services provided licensed fixed-line telephone operators that provide last-mile access to the subscriber using radio technology, where the call is then routed over a fixed-line telephone network (not a mobile cellular network). VoIP refers to subscriptions that offer the ability to place and receive calls at any time and do not require a computer. VoIP is known as voice-over-broadband (VoB), and includes subscriptions through fixed-wireless, DSL, cable, fibre optic and other fixed-broadband platforms that provide fixed telephony using IP.

Mobile cellular telephone subs per 100 inh

Mobile cellular telephone subs per 100 inh:The term “mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions” refers to the number of subscriptions to a public mobile-telephone service providing access to the public switched telephone network using cellular technology. It includes both the number of postpaid subscriptions and the number of active prepaid accounts (i.e. accounts that have been active during the previous three months). It includes all mobile-cellular subscriptions that offer voice communications. It excludes subscriptions via data cards or USB modems, subscriptions to public mobile data services, private trunked mobile radio, telepoint, radio paging, machine-to-machine (M2M) and telemetry services.

International Internet bandwidth (kb/s) per internet user

International Internet bandwidth (b/s) per internet user:This indicator refers to the usage of all international links including fiber-optic cables, radio links, and traffic processed by satellite ground stations and teleports to orbital satellites.

Percentage of households with a computer

Percentage of households with a computer:The term “individuals using the Internet” refers to people who used the Internet from any location and for any purpose, irrespective of the device and network used, in the previous three months. Usagecan be via a computer (i.e. desktop computer,laptop computer, tablet or similar handheld computer), mobile phone, games machine, digital television, etc.). Access can be via a fixed or mobile network.

Percentage of households with internet access

Percentage of households with internet access:The Internet is a worldwide public computer network. It provides access to a number of communication services, including the World Wide Web, and carries e-mail, news, entertainment and data files, irrespective of the device used (not assumed to be only a computer; it may also be a mobile telephone, tablet, PDA, games machine, digital television, etc.). Access can be via a fixed or mobile network. Household with Internet access means that the Internet is available for use by all members of the household at any time.

Percentage of individuals using the Internet

ICT use / Percentage of individuals using the Internet:The term “individuals using the Internet” refers to people who used the Internet from any location and for any purpose, irrespective of the device and network used, in the previous three months. Usage can be via a computer (i.e. desktop computer,laptop computer, tablet or similar handheld c\omputer), mobile phone, games machine, digital television, etc.). Access can be via a fixed or mobile network.

Active mobile broadband subscription per 100 inh

ICT use / Active mobile broadband subscription per 100 inh

Fixed-broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants

ICT use / fixed-broadband subscriptions per 100 inh:The term “fixed-broadband subscriptions” refers to fixed subscriptions for high-speed access to the public Internet (a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)/IP connection) at downstream speeds equal to or higher than 256 kbit/s. This includes cable modem, DSL, fibre-to-the-home/building, other fixed (wired)-broadband subscriptions, satellite broadband and terrestrial fixed wireless broadband. The total is measured irrespective of the method of payment. It excludes subscriptions that have access to data communications (including the Internet) via mobile-cellular networks. It includes fixed WiMAX and any other fixed wireless technologies, and both residential subscriptions and subscriptions for organizations.

Mean years of schooling

The term “mean years of schooling” is the average number of completed years of education of a country’s population, excluding years spent repeating individual grades.

Secondary gross enrolment ratio

According to the UIS, the gross enrolment ratio is “the total enrolment in a specific level of education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the eligible official school-age population corresponding to the same level of education in a given school-year.

Tertiary gross enrolment ratio

According to the UIS, the gross enrolment ratio is “the total enrolment in a specific level of education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the eligible official school-age population corresponding to the same level of education in a given school-year.”

Network Readiness Index

Digital transformation needs the availability of appropriate infrastructure, skilled human resources, adequate governance and impact on national development. Developed by Portulans Institute, this index assesses 134 economies based on their performance across 60 variables.

The Index includes four fundamental dimensions: Technology, People, Governance and Impact. This holistic approach means that the NRI covers issues ranging from future technologies such as Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Internet of Things (IoT) to the role of the digital economy in reaching the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

mobile tariffs

mobile tariffs:This indicator is based on the Mobile tariffs sub-index that is included in the Affordability pillar of the Mobile Connectivity Index published by the GSM Association. The sub-index relates to the cost of three different basket profiles that are partly distinguished by monthly usage allowance (100 MB, 500 MB, and 1 GB, respectively). The tariffs are given as a percentage of monthly GDP per capital.

handset prices

handset prices:This is one of the indicators included in the Affordability pillar of the Mobile Connectivity Index published by the GSM Association. It relates to the cheapest smartphone or feature phone that allows users access to the Internet

Internet access

Percentage of households with internet access. This is the share of households with Internet access at home via a fixed or mobile network. A household with Internet access is defined as the Internet being available for use by all members of the household at any time. This indicator can include both estimates and survey data corresponding to the proportion of individuals using the Internet based on results from national household surveys. The number should reflect the total population of the country, or at least individuals of 5 years and older.

4G mobile network coverage

4G mobile network coverage:This indicator measures the percentage of inhabitants out of the total population who are within range of an advanced mobile cellular signal, such as LTE/LTE-Advanced and mobile WiMAX/WirelessMAN networks, irrespective of whether they are subscribers.

fixed broadband subs

ICT use / fixed-broadband subscriptions per 100 inh:The term “fixed-broadband subscriptions” refers to fixed subscriptions for high-speed access to the public Internet (a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)/IP connection) at downstream speeds equal to or higher than 256 kbit/s. This includes cable modem, DSL, fibre-to-the-home/building, other fixed (wired)-broadband subscriptions, satellite broadband and terrestrial fixed wireless broadband. The total is measured irrespective of the method of payment. It excludes subscriptions that have access to data communications (including the Internet) via mobile-cellular networks. It includes fixed WiMAX and any other fixed wireless technologies, and both residential subscriptions and subscriptions for organizations.

International internet bandwidth

International Internet bandwidth (b/s) per internet user:This indicator refers to the usage of all international links including fiber-optic cables, radio links, and traffic processed by satellite ground stations and teleports to orbital satellites.

Internet access in schools

This refers to the share of primary schools with access to the Internet via fixed narrowband, fixed broadband, or mobile network. Internet for pedagogical purposes means Internet that enhances teaching and learning and that provides pupils with access to a number of communications services through various devices.

digital participation and content creation

DKEI digital participation and content creation subindex This indicator is a sub-index comprised of three variables: GitHub commits, Wikipedia edits, and top-level domain registrations. The sub-index has been constructed by Ojanperä et al. (2019) as a measure of digital capacities and skills in a country. They use it to estimate a Digital Knowledge Economy Index, whereby they complement the World Bank’s Knowledge Economy Index by adding the sub-index as a fifth dimension.

mobile app development

Number of active mobile applications developed per person. This indicator is included in the Mobile Connectivity Index published by the GSM Association. It is one of four indicators that make up the Local Relevance sub-index that, in turn, is part of the Content & Services pillar. The original data is sourced from AppFigures (https://appfigures.com/).

Intellectual property receipts

Charges for the use of intellectual property not included elsewhere, receipts (% of total trade) This indicator is based on receipts related to four subitems of charges for the use of intellectual property not included elsewhere: franchises and trademarks licensing fees, licenses for the use of outcomes of research and development, licenses to reproduce and/or distribute computer software, and licenses to reproduce and/or distribute audiovisual and related products. The data refers to the three-year average as a percentage oftotal trade. The product category follows the Extended Balance of Payments Services Classification (EBOPS 2010), which is based on the sixth edition of the IMF Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual (BPM6).

availability of latest technologies

In your country, to what extent are the latest technologies available? [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent] | 2016-17 weighted average

company investment in emerging technology

Average answer to the question: In your country, to what extent do companies invest in emerging technologies (e.g. Internet of Things, advanced analytics and artificial intelligence, augmented virtual reality and wearables, advanced robotics, 3D printing)? [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]. The World Economic Forum’s Executive Opinion Survey (EOS) is conducted on an annual basis to gather information from business leaders on topics for which hard data sources are scarce or nonexistent.

Gov procurement of advanced tech products

The Government Online Service Index (OIS) is one of the three main components of the E-Government Development Index (EGDI) constructed and published by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. The OIS assesses the quality of a government’s delivery of online services on a 0-to-1 (best) scale. The assessment is carried out by researchers, who evaluate “each country’s national website in the native language, including the national portal, e-services portal, and e-participation portal, as well as the websites of the related ministries of education, labor, social services, health, finance, and environment, as applicable.

ICT PCT patent applications

Number of applications for information andcommunication technology–related patents filed under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) (per million population) This indicator refers to the count of applications filed under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) in the technology domain of information and communication technologies by priority date and inventor nationality. The count is divided by million population. The classification for ICT-related patents is based on the International Patent Classification (IPC), as described in Inaba and Squicciarini (2017).

Computer software spending

Total computer software spending (% of GDP) . “Computer software spending” includes the total value of purchased or leased packaged software such as operating systems, database systems, programming tools, utilities, and applications. It excludes expenditures for internal software development and outsourced custom software development. The data are a combination of actual figures and estimates. Data are reported as a percentage of GDP.

Robot density

Number of robots in operation per 10,000 employees in the manufacturing industry . “Robot density” refers to the estimated number of multipurpose industrial robots per 10,000 persons employed in the manufacturing industry (ISIC rev.4: C). The International Federation of Robotics (IFR) collects countrylevel data on operational stock of industrial robots and, for some countries, computes robot densities. The computed robot densities are published in the annual World Robotics report.

Internet users

ICT use / Percentage of individuals using the Internet:“Internet users” refers to the proportion of individuals who used the Internet in the last 12 months. Data are generally based on national household surveys where the percentage should reflect the total population of the country.

Active mobile broadband subs

ICT use / Active mobile broadband subscription per 100 inh:This indicator refers to the sum of active handset-based and computer-based mobile-broadband subscriptions to the public Internet, where users have accessed the Internet in the last three months. It covers actual subscribers, not potential subscribers, even though the latter may have broadband-enabled handsets.

Use of virtual social network

Number of active social media users (% of population) .This indicator refers to the penetration of active social media users, expressed as a percentage of total population. The original data come from a variety of sources, including company statements and reports in reputable media.

Tertiary enrollment

According to the UIS, the gross enrolment ratio is “the total enrolment in a specific level of education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the eligible official school-age population corresponding to the same level of education in a given school-year.”

Adult literacy rate

Adult literacy rate” is defined as the percentage of the population aged 15 years and over who can read, write, and understand a short, simple statement on his/her everyday life.

ICT Skills

Average answer to the question: In your country, to what extent does the active population possess sufficient digital skills (e.g. computer skills, basic coding, digital reading)? [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent] .

Firms with websites

The data for this indicator are based on enterprise surveys conducted by the OECD and the World Bank. The former source is used for OECD countries and accession countries or key partners, while the latter source is used for all other countries.

Internet shopping

Used the Internet to buy something online in the past year (%) . This indicator refers to the percentage of respondents aged at least 15 years old who have used the Internet in the past year to buy something online. The data stem from a triennial survey that is carried out in more than 140 economies.

professionals

"Professionals” refers to the number of professionals as a share of the total workforce. The employment by occupation is based on the International Standard Classification of Occupation (ISCO) Revision 2008 (data based on ISCO Rev. 1988 is used for those countries where ISCO Rev. 2008 is not available). It includes physical, mathematical, and engineering science professionals; life science and health professionals; teaching professionals; and other professionals (business, legal, archivists, librarians, social science, religious professionals, writers, and creative or performing artists).

Technicians and associate professionals

This indicator refers to the number of technicians and associate professionals as a share of the total workforce. The employment by occupation is based on the International Standard Classification of Occupation (ISCO) Revision 2008 (data based on ISCO Rev. 1988 is used for those countries where ISCO Rev. 2008 is not available). It includes physical and engineering science associate professionals, life science and health associate professionals, teaching associate professionals, and other associate professionals (finance and sales, social work, artistic, entertainment and sports, religious associate professionals, police inspectors and detectives, administrative, customs, and tax and related government associate professionals).

Extent of staff training

Average answer to the question: In your country, to what extent do companies invest in training and employee development? [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent] The World Economic Forum’s Executive Opinion Survey (EOS) is conducted on an annual basis to gather information from business leaders on topics for which hard data sources are scarce or nonexistent. It is part of the effort to supplement The Global Competitiveness Report in assessing issues that drive national competitiveness

R&D expenditure by businesses

Gross domestic expenditure on R&D performed by business enterprise (% of GDP) This indicator refers to business enterprise expenditure on research and development (R&D) as a percentage of GDP. This includes both private enterprises and public enterprises. R&D expenditure is defined as all current expenditure plus gross fixed capital expenditure for R&D performed by businesses, whatever the source of funds

Gov online services

In your country, to what extent do government purchasing decisions foster innovation? [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]

Publication and use of open data

This indicator refers to the fourth edition of the Open Data Barometer, an index that provides a measure of how governments publish and use open data based on the following three dimensions (weights given in parentheses): readiness (35 percent) , implementation (35 percent), and impact (30 percent).

ICT use and government efficiency

The data refer to the simple mean of the average answers to a similarly worded question regarding five different emerging technologies: In your country, to what extent does the government foster investment (public and private) in Artificial intelligence and machine learning|Robotics|App- and web-enabled markets|Big data analytics|Cloud computing? (1: not at all; 7: to a great extent)

R&D expenditure by Gov and higher education

Gross domestic expenditure on R&D performed by government and higher education institutions (% of GDP). This indicator refers to the combined expenditure by governments and higher education institutions on research and development (R&D) as a percentage of GDP. The government sector comprises all units of central, regional, and municipal government, but excludes public enterprises (which fall under the business enterprise category). Higher education institutions are those that primarily focus on providing formal tertiary education (i.e. levels 5–8 of the International Standard Classification of Education, ISCED). R&D expenditure is defined as all current expenditure plus gross fixed capital expenditure for R&D performed by government and higher education institutions, whatever the source of funds.

Rule of law

The rule of law indicator ‘reflects perceptions of the extent to which agents have confidence in and abide by the rules of society, and in particular the quality of contract enforcement, property rights, the police, and the courts, as well as the likelihood of crime and violence’. Scores are standardized to a scale from -2.5 (worst) to 2.5 (best).

Software piracy rate

This measure covers piracy of all packaged software that runs on personal computers (PCs), including desktops, laptops, and ultra-portables, including netbooks. This includes operating systems; systems software such as databases and security packages; business applications; and consumer applications such as games, personal finance, and reference software. The study does not include software that runs on servers or mainframes, or Software loaded onto tablets or smart phones.

Secure Internet servers

Secure Internet servers are servers using encryption technology in Internet transactions. "

Cybersecurity

The Global Cybersecurity Index (GCI) provides a measure of the level of cybersecurity commitment of countries. It is a composite index made up of 25 indicators that are distributed across five main pillars: Legal Measures, Technical Measures, Organizational Measures, Capacity Building Measures, and Cooperation Measures. Scores are standardized to a scale of 0 to 1. "

Online trust and safety

The Trust & Safety sub-index is one of three components that make up the Readiness pillar of the Inclusive Internet Index . The sub-index measures Internet safety and cultural acceptance of the Internet based on the weighted average of six indicators: Privacy regulations, Trust in online privacy, Trust in Government websites and apps, Trust in Non-government websites and apps, Trust in information from social media, and e-Commerce safety. Scores are standardized to a scale of 0-100.

Regulation quality

The regulatory quality indicator captures perceptions of the ability of the government to formulate and implement sound policies and regulations that permit and promote private sector development. Scores are standardized to a scale from -2.5 (worst) to 2.5 (best).

Ease of doing business

Doing Business records all procedures officially required, or commonly done in practice, for an entrepreneur to start up and formally operate an industrial or commercial business, as well as the time and cost to complete these procedures and the paid-in minimum capital requirement . These procedures include the processes entrepreneurs undergo when obtaining all necessary approvals, licenses, and permits and completing any required notifications, verifications, or inscriptions for the company and employees with relevant authorities.

Legal framework adaptability to digital business models

Average answer to survey questions concerning the extent to which the legal framework is adapting to five types of emerging technology ? The World Economic Forum’s Executive Opinion Survey (EOS) is conducted on an annual basis to gather information from business leaders on topics for which hard data sources are scarce or nonexistent. The data refer to the simple mean of the average answers to a similarly worded question regarding five different emerging technologies: In your country, how adequately is the legal framework adapting to Artificial intelligence|Robotics|Appand web-enabled markets|Big data analytics|Cloud computing? (1: not at all; 7: to a great extent - the legal framework is up-to-date)

e-commerce legislation

This indicator refers to countries’ adoption of E-commerce legislation. The Global Cyberlaw Tracker provides information on whether a country has adopted legislation (or has a draft law pending adoption) in four areas: electronic transactions, consumer protection, privacy and data protection, and cybercrime. Scores range from 0 (no legislation) to 4 (adopted legislation in all four areas).

Social safety net protection

Average answer to the question: What does the legal framework to protect Internet users’ privacy and their data stipulate? This indicator refers to responses on privacy protection given by multiple country experts on a 0-to-4 scale. The responses have been aggregated and, taking disagreement and measurement error into account, a probability distribution has been computed over country-year scores on a standardized interval scale. The point estimates are the median values of these distributions for each countryyear. The scale of a measurement model variable is similar to a normal (“Z”) score (e.g. typically between -5 and 5, with 0 approximately representing the mean for all countryyears in the sample), though it does not necessarily follow normal distribution. Only estimates based on at least four ratings are included in the data.

ICT regulatory environment

This indicator is based on a composite index—the ICT Regulatory Tracker—that provides a measure the existence and features of ICT legal and regulatory frameworks. The index covers 50 indicators that are distributed across four pillars: Regulatory Authority, Regulatory Mandate, Regulatory Regime, and Competition Framework. Scores are standardized to a scale of 0-2.

e-participation

The E-Participation Index assesses, on a 0-to-1 (best) scale, the quality, relevance, and usefulness of government websites in providing online information andparticipatory tools and services to their citizens. Within the E-Participation Index, countries are benchmarked in three areas: e-information, e-consultation, and e-decisionmaking. As such, the index indicates both the capacity and the willingness of the state in encouraging the citizen to promote deliberative, participatory decision-making in public policy and of the reach of its own socially inclusive governance program

Socio-economic gap in use of digital payments

This indicator refers to the share of, respectively, the poorest 40 percent and richest 60 percent in a country that made or received a digital payment in the past 12 months. Making a digital payment includes “using mobile money, a debit or credit card, or a mobile phone to make a payment from an account, or report using the Internet to pay bills or to buy something online.” Receiving a digital payment includes receiving money “directly from or into a financial institution account or through a mobile money account.” Scores are calculated as the ratio of the share related to the poorest 40 percent over the share related to the richest 60 percent.

Availability of local online content

Average answer to the question: In your country, to what extent are Internet content and services tailored to the local population (e.g. in the local language, meeting local demand)? (1 = Not at all; 7 = To a great extent] The World Economic Forum’s Executive Opinion Survey (EOS) is conducted on an annual basis to gather information from business leaders on topics for which hard data sources are scarce or nonexistent.

Gender gap in internet use

This indicator refers to the share of, respectively, women and men in a country that use the Internet. Scores are calculated as the ratio of the share related to the female population over the share related to the male population.

Rural gap in use of digital payment

This indicator refers to the share of, respectively, the rural population and the total population in a country that made or received digital payments in the past 12 months. Making a digital payment includes “using mobile money, a debit or credit card, or a mobile phone to make a payment from an account, or report using the Internet to pay bills or to buy something online.” Receiving a digital payment includes receiving money “directly from or into a financial institution account or through a mobile money account.” Scores are calculated as the ratio of the share related to the rural population over the share related to the total population.

Medium and high tech industry

Proportion of medium and high-tech industry value added in total value added (%) . This indicator refers to the ratio between the value added of medium and high-tech industry and the total value added of manufacturing, expressed as a percentage.

hi-tech exports

High technology manufactures exports (% of total exports of manufactured goods) High-value exports refers to high technology manufactures (electronic and electrical and other), as calculated according to the Lall classification, over exports of all manufactured goods."

PCT patent application

Number of applications filed under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) (per million population) This indicator refers to the total count of applications filed under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT), by priority date and inventor nationality, using fractional count if an application is filed by multiple inventors. The count is divided by million population.

Labor productivity per employee

The Conference Board provides two calculations of its estimates on output, labor, and labor productivity: an original version based on official GDP data and an adjusted version based on GDP growth and levels that take into account rapidly falling ICT prices. “Labor productivity per employee” is based on the estimates of the adjusted version.

Happiness

“Happiness” refers to the national average response to the following survey question included in the Gallup World Poll: “Please imagine a ladder, with steps numbered from 0 at the bottom to 10 at the top. The top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom of the ladder represents the worst possible life for you. On which step of the ladder would you say you personally feel you stand at this time?” The indicator is also referred to as the “Cantril life ladder,” “life ladder,” or “subjective well-being.”

Freedom to make life choices

Freedom to make life choices” refers to the national average response to the following survey question included in the Gallup World Poll: “Are you satisfied or dissatisfied with your freedom to choose what you do with your life?

Income inequality

The Gini index is a measure of income inequality in an economy. Technically, it is based on a Lorenz curve that “plots the cumulative percentages of total income received against the cumulative number of recipients” and where the Gini index refers to the area between the Lorenz curve and the (hypothetical) line of perfect equality. The scale of the Gini index ranges from 0 (perfect equality) to 100 (perfect inequality).

Healthy life expectancy at birth

This indicator is defined as the “average number of years that a person can expect to live in ‘full health’ by taking into account years lived in less than full health due to disease and/or injury”. The number of years lost due to ill health in a country is estimated by the disability rate per capita (adjusted for independent comorbidity), broken down by age and sex. "

Access to basic services

Population with access to basic sanitation services and basic drinking water services (%). This indicator refers to the average of the percentage of the population using at least basic sanitation services and the percentage of the population using at least basic drinking water services. Basic sanitation services relate to “improved sanitation facilities that are not shared with other households”, while the definition for basic drinking water services is “drinking water from an improved source, provided collection time is not more than 30 minutes for a round trip”. The measure is based on SDG indicator “1.4.1 Proportion of population living in households with access to basic services”, which is one of the official indicators for “SDG 1: End poverty in all its forms everywhere” .

Pollution

Annual mean levels of fine particulate matter in cities, urban population (micrograms per cubic meter) . Pollution refers to air pollution in urban areas, as measured by annual mean concentrations of fine particulate matter that are less than 2.5 microns in diameters. The data on PM2.5 concentrations come from fixed-site, population-oriented monitors in metropolitan areas. The country-level mean is a population-weighted average for the urban population. The indicator is one of the official measures for “SDG 11: Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.

Road saftey

Road traffic death rate (per 100,000 population). Road safety refers to the estimated number of deaths that are due to road traffic injuries per 100,000 population. The indicator is one of the official measures for “SDG 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages” .

Reading profeciency in schools

Minimum proficiency in reading, lower primary education (%) This indicator relates to the proportion of students in grades 2 or 3 that have at least minimum proficiency in reading. The level of minimum proficiency is measured through learning assessments and United Nations (2018) provides further details on what minimum proficiency levels are associated with different learning assessments. The indicator is one of the official measures for “SDG 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all” and, specifically, for “Target 4.1: By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and effective learning outcomes”.

Math proficiency in schools

Minimum proficiency in mathematics, lower primary education (%) This indicator relates to the proportion of students in grades 2 or 3 that have at least minimum proficiency in mathematics. The level of minimum proficiency is measured through learning assessments and United Nations (2018) provides further details on what minimum proficiency levels are associated with different learning assessments. The indicator is one of the official measures for “SDG 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all” and, specifically, for “Target 4.1: By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and effective learning outcomes”.

Use of clean fuels and technology

Proportion of population with primary reliance on clean fuels and technology (%) . This indicator is defined as “the number of people using clean fuels and technologies for cooking, heating and lighting divided by total population”, expressed as a percentage. By “clean” is meant meeting specific emission rate targets and fuel recommendations as set out in World Health Organization (2014). The indicator is one of the official measures for “SDG 7: Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all

Global Innovation Index

To take full advantage of innovation on national level, a mature ecosystem is needed. Developed by World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), the Global Innovation Index (GII) measures the innovation ecosystem on national level by covering 3 dimensions: innovation input, innovation output and innovation efficiency.

Poltical and operational stability

Index that measures the likelihood and severity of political,legal, operational or security risks impacting business operations.

Government effectiveness

Index that reflects perceptions of the quality of public services, the quality of the civil service and the degree of its independence from political pressures, the quality of policy formulation and implementation, and the credibility of the government’s commitment to such policies.

Regulatory quality

Index that reflects perceptions of the ability of the government to formulate and implement sound policies and regulations that permit and promote private-sector development.

Rule of law

Index that reflects perceptions of the extent to which agents have confidence in and abide by the rules of society, and in particular the quality of contract enforcement, property rights, the police, and the courts,as well as the likelihood of crime and violence.

Cost of redundancy dismissal

Sum of notice period and severance pay for redundancy dismissal (salary in weeks, averages for workers with 1, 5, and 10 years of tenure, with a minimum threshold of 8 weeks)Redundancy costs measure the cost of advance notice equirements and severance payments due when terminating a redundant worker, expressed in weeks of salary.

Ease of starting a business

Doing Business records all procedures officially required, or commonly done in practice, for an entrepreneur to start up and formally operate an industrial or commercial business, as well as the time and cost to complete these procedures and the paid-in minimum capital requirement.

Ease of doing insolvency

The ranking of economies on the ease of resolving insolvency is determined by sorting their scores. These scores are the simple average of the scores for the recovery rate and the strength of insolvency framework index. The recovery rate is recorded as cents on the dollar recovered by secured creditors through reorganization, liquidation, or debt enforcement (foreclosure or receivership) proceedings.

Expenditure on education

Total general (local, regional and central) government expenditure on education (current, capital, and transfers), expressed as a percentage of GDP.

Government funding per secondary student

Total general (local, regional and central, current and capital) initial government funding of education per student, which includes transfers paid (such as scholarships to students), but excludes transfers received, in this case international transfers to government for education (when foreign donors provide education sector budget support or other support integrated in the government budget). This is then expressed as a share of GDP per capita, in US$.

School life expectancy

Total number of years of schooling that a child of a certain age can expect to receive in the future, assuming that the probability of his or her being enrolled in school at any particular age is equal to the current enrolment ratio for that age.

PISA scales in reading, maths and science

PISA is the OECD’s (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) Programme for International Student Assessment. PISA measures 15-year-olds’ ability to use their reading, mathematics and science knowledge and skills.Results from PISA indicate the quality and equity of learning outcomes attained around the world.

Pupil-teacher ratio, secondary

The number of pupils enrolled in secondary school divided by the number of secondary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).A high pupil-teacher ratio suggests that each teacher has to be responsible for a large number of pupils. In other words, the higher the pupil/ teacher ratio, the lower the relative access of pupils to teachers.

Tertiary enrolment

The ratio of total tertiary enrolment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the tertiary level of education. Tertiary education, whether or not at an advanced research qualification, normally requires, as a minimum condition of admission, the successful completion of education at the secondary level.

Graduates in Science and engineering

The share of all tertiary-level graduates in natural sciences,mathematics, statistics, information and technology,manufacturing, engineering, and construction as a percentage of all tertiary-level graduates.

Tertiary inbound mobility

The number of students from abroad studying in a given country as a percentage of the total tertiary-level enrolment in that country.

Gross expenditure on R&D (GERD)

Total domestic intramural expenditure on R&D during a given period as a percentage of GDP. “Intramural R&D expenditure” is all expenditure for R&D performed within a statistical unit or sector of the economy during a specific period, whatever the source of funds

Global RnD companies, average expenditure, top 3

Average expenditure on R&D of the top three global companies. If a country has fewer than three global companies listed, the figure is either the average of the sum of the two companies listed or the total for a single listed company. A score of 0 is given to countries with no listed companies.

QS university ranking average score of top 3 universities

Average score of the top three universities per country. If fewer than three universities are listed in the QS ranking of the global top 1000 universities, the sum of the scores of the listed universities is divided by three, thus implying a score of zero for the non-listed universities.

Resarchers FTE

Researchers per million population, FTE. Researchers in R&D are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods, or systems and in the management of the projects concerned. Postgraduate PhD students (ISCED97 level 6) engaged in R&D are included.

ICT access

The ICT access index, previously part of the ITU ICT Development Index, is a composite index that weights five ICT indicators (20% each): (1) Fixed telephone subscriptions per 100 inhabitants; (2) Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions per 100 inhabitants; (3) International Internet bandwidth (bit/s) per Internet user; (4) Percentage of households with a computer; and (5) Percentage of households with Internet access.

ICT use

The ICT use index, previously part of the ITU ICT Development Index, is a composite index that weights three ICT indicators (33% each): (1) Percentage of individuals using the Internet; (2) Fixed (wired)-broadband Internet subscriptions per 100 inhabitants; (3) Active mobilebroadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants.

Government online service

The Online Services Index component of the E-Government Development Index is a composite indicator measuring the use of ICTs by governments in delivering public services at the national level.

online e-participation

The E-Participation Index (EPI) is derived as a supplementary index to the United Nations E-Government Survey. It extends the dimension of the Survey by focusing on the government use of online services in providing information to its citizens or “e-information sharing”,interacting with stakeholders or “e-consultation” and engaging in decision-making processes or “e-decisionmaking.”"

Electricity output

Electricity output

Logistics performance

Logistics performance: A multidimensional assessment of logistics performance, the Logistics Performance Index (LPI) ranks 160 countries combining data on six core performance components into a single aggregate measure—including customs performance, infrastructure quality, and timeliness of shipments. The LPI’s six components are: (1) the efficiency of customs and border management clearance (“Customs”); (2) the quality of trade and transport infrastructure (“Infrastructure”); (3) the ease of arranging competitively priced shipments (“International shipments”); (4) the competence and quality of logistics services (“Services Quality”); (5) the ability to track and trace consignments (“Tracking and tracing”); and (6) the frequency with which shipments reach consignees within scheduled or expected delivery times (“Timeliness”). The LPI consists therefore of both qualitative and quantitative measures and helps build profiles of logistics friendliness for these countries.

Gross capital formation

Gross capital formation is expressed as a ratio of total investment in current local currency to GDP in current local currency. Investment or gross capital formation is measured by the total value of the gross fixed capital formation and changes in inventories and acquisitions less disposals of valuables for a unit or sector, on the basis of the System of National Accounts (SNA) of 1993.

GDP per unit of energy use

Purchasing power parity gross domestic product (PPP$ GDP) per kilogram of oil equivalent of energy use. Total primary energy supply (TPES) is made up of production + imports - exports - international marine bunkers - international aviation bunkers +/– stock changes.

Environmental performance

These indicators provide a gauge at a national scale of how close countries are to established environmental policy targets. The EPI offers a scorecard that highlights leaders and laggards in environmental performance and provides practical guidance for countries that aspire tomove toward a sustainable future.

ISO 14001 environmental certificates

ISO 14001:2015 specifies the requirements for an environmental management system that an organization can use to enhance its environmental performance. ISO 14001 is intended for use by an organization seeking to manage its environmental responsibilities in a systematic manner that contributes to the environmental pillar of sustainability. ISO 14001 helps an organization achieve the intended outcomes of its environmental management system, which provide value for the environment, the organization itself, and interested parties.

Ease of getting credit

These scores are the score for the sum of the strength of the legal rights index (range 0–12) and the depth of credit information index (range 0–8). Doing Business measures the legal rights of borrowers and lenders with respect to secured transactions through one set of indicators and the reporting of credit information through another. The first set of indicators measures whether certain features that facilitate lending exist within the applicable collateral and bankruptcy laws. The second set measures the coverage, scope, and accessibility of credit information available through credit reporting service providers such as credit bureaus or credit registries. Although Doing Business compiles data on getting credit for public registry coverage (% of adults) and for private bureau coverage (% of adults), these indicators are not included in the ranking.

Domestic credit to private sector

Domestic credit to private sector” refers to financial resources provided to the private sector by financial corporations, such as through loans, purchases of nonequity securities, and trade credits and other accounts receivable that establish a claim for repayment. For some countries, these claims include credit to public enterprises. The financial corporations include monetary authorities and deposit money banks, as well as otherfinancial corporations where data are available (including corporations that do not accept transferable deposits but do incur such liabilities as time and savings deposits).

Microfinance institutions gross loan portfolio

Combined gross loan balances of microfinance institutions (current US$) in a country as a percentage of its GDP (current US$).

Ease of protecting minority investors

This ranking is the sum of the scores for the extent of conflict of interest regulation index and the extent of shareholder governance index. The extent of conflict of interest regulation index measures the protection of shareholders against directors’ misuse of corporate assets for personal gain by distinguishing three dimensions of regulation thataddress conflicts of interest: transparency of related-party transactions (extent of disclosure index), shareholders’ability to sue and hold directors liable for self-dealing (extent of director liability index), and access to evidence and allocation of legal expenses in shareholder litigation(ease of shareholder suits index).

Market capitalisation

Market capitalization (also known as “market value”) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding (including their several classes) for listed domestic companies. Investment funds, unit trusts, and companies whose only business goal is to hold shares of other listed companies are excluded.

Venture capital investors, deals

Thomson Reuters Eikon data on private equity deals, per deal, with information on the location of investment, investment company, investor firms, funds, and crowdfunding, among other details.

Venture capital recipients, deals

Applied tariff rate, weighted average

"Weighted mean applied tariff” is the average of effectively applied rates weighted by the product import shares corresponding to each partner country. Data are classified using the Harmonized System of trade at the six- or eight-digit level. Tariff line data were matched to Standard International Trade Classification (SITC) revision 3 codes to define commodity groups and import weights. To the extent possible, specific rates have been converted to their ad valorem equivalent rates and have been included in the calculation of weighted mean tariffs. Effectively applied tariff rates at the six- and eight-digit product level are averaged for products in each commodity group. When the effectively applied rate is unavailable, the most favored nation rate is used instead.

Domestic industry diversification

Average answer to the survey question: In your country, how intense is competition in the local markets? [1 = notintense at all; 7 = extremely intense

Domestic market scale

The domestic market size is measured by gross domestic product (GDP) based on the purchasing-power-parity (PPP) valuation of country GDP, in current international dollars (billions).

Knowledge-intensive employment

Sum of people in categories 1 to 3 as a percentage of total people employed, according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO). Categories included in ISCO-08 are: 1 Managers, 2 Professionals,and 3 Technicians and associate professionals.

Firms offering formal training

The percentage of firms offering formal training programs for their permanent, full-time employees in the sample of firms in the World Bank’s Enterprise Survey in each country.

GERD performed by business enterprise

Gross expenditure on R&D performed by business enterprise as a percentage of GDP

GERD financed by business enterpise

Gross expenditure on R&D financed by business enterprise as a percentage of total gross expenditure on R&D.

Females employed with advanced degrees

The percentage of females employed with advanced degrees out of total employed. The employed comprise all persons of working age who, during a specified brief period, were in one of the following categories: (1) paid employment (whether at work or with a job but not at work); or (2) self-employment (whether at work or with an enterprise but not at work).

University/industry research collaboration

Average answer to the survey question: In your country, to what extent do businesses and universities collaborate on research and development (R&D) [1 = do not collaborate at all; 7 = collaborate extensively]

State of cluster development

Average answer to the survey question on the role of clusters in the economy: In your country, how widespread are well-developed and deep clusters (geographic concentrations of firms, suppliers, producers of related products and services, and specialized institutions in a particular field)? [1 = non-existent; 7 = widespread in many fields]

GERD financed by abroad

Percentage of gross expenditure on R&D financed by abroad (billions, national currency)—that is, with foreign financing as a percentage of GDP (billions, national currency).

Joint venture/strategic alliance deals

Thomson Reuters data on joint ventures/strategic alliances deals, per deal, with details on the country of origin of partner firms, among others. The series corresponds to a query on joint venture/strategic alliance deals from January 1, 2019 to December 31, 2019, for a total of 10,535 deals announced in 2019, with firms headquartered in 122 GII participating economies. Each participating nation of each company in a deal (n countries per deal) gets, per deal,a score equivalent to 1/n (with the effect that all country scores add up to 10,535). The data are reported per billion PPP$ GDP.

Patent families filed in two offices

A “patent family” is a set of interrelated patent applications filed in one or more countries or jurisdictions to protect the same invention. Patent families containing applications filed in at least two different offices is a subset of patent families where protection of the same invention is sought in at least two different countries.

Innovation linkage

Intellectual property payments

Value according to the Extended Balance of Payments Services Classification EBOPS 2010—that is, code SH charges for the use of intellectual property not included elsewhere as a percentage of total trade. “Total trade” is defined as the sum of total imports code G goods and code SOX commercial services (excluding government goods and services not included elsewhere) plus total exports of code G goods and code SOX commercial services (excluding government goods and services not included elsewhere), divided by 2. According to the sixth edition of the International Monetary Fund’s Balance of Payments Manual, the item “Goods” covers general merchandise, net exports of goods under merchanting, and non-monetary gold.

High tech imports

High-technology imports as a percentage of total trade. High-technology exports and imports contain technical products with a high intensity of R&D, defined by the Eurostat classification, which is based on Standard International Trade Classification (SITC) Revision 4 and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) definition. Commodities belong to the following sectors: aerospace; computers & office machines;electronics; telecommunications; pharmacy; scientific instruments; electrical machinery; chemistry; non-electrical machinery; and armament.

ICT services imports

Telecommunications, computer and information services as a percentage of total trade according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)’s Extended Balance of Payments Services Classification EBOPS 2010, coded SI: Telecommunications, computer and information services.

Foreign direct investment net inflows

Foreign direct investment is the average of the most recent three years of net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock)in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors, and is divided by GDP.

Research talent in business entreprise

Full-time equivalent (FTE) researchers in the business enterprise sector” refers to researchers as professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods, and systems, as well as in the management of these projects, broken down by the sectors in which they are employed (business enterprise, government, higher education, and private non-profit organizations).

Patent applications by origin

A resident patent application refers to an application filed with an IP office for or on behalf of the first-named applicant’s country of residence. For example, an application filed with the Japan Patent Office (JPO) by a resident of Japan is considered a resident application for Japan.

PCT applications by origin

A PCT application refers to an international patent applications filed through the WIPO-administered Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT). The PCT system makes it possible to seek patent protection for an invention simultaneously in a number of countries by filing a single international patent application. The origin of PCT applications is defined by the residence of the first-named applicant.

Utility models by origin

terms and conditions for granting a utility model are slightly different from those for normal patents and include a shorter term of protection and less stringent patentability requirements. A utility model is sometimes referred to in certain countries as “petty patents”, “short-term patents”,or “innovation patents”. A resident UM application refers to an application filed with an IP office for or on behalf of the first-named applicant’s country of residence.

Scientific and technical publications

Articles are counted on a count basis (rather than afractional basis)—that is, for articles with collaborating institutions from multiple countries/economies, each country/economy receives credit on the basis of its participating institutions. The data are reported per billion PPP$ GDP.

Citable documents H index

The H-index expresses the journal’s number of articles (H) that have received at least H citations. It quantifies both journal scientific productivity and scientific impact. The H-index is tabulated from the number of citations received in subsequent years by articles published in a given year,divided by the number of articles published that year.

Labor productivity growth

Growth rate of real GDP per person employed (constant 1990 PPP$), average of three last available years. Growth of gross domestic product (GDP) per person engaged provides a measure of labor productivity (defined as output per unit of labor input). GDP per person employed is GDP divided by total employment in the economy. PPP$ GDP is Constant 1990 in U.S. dollars, expressed in 1990 GK PPP, Millions. While this is a relatively robust measure, it does not correct for part-time jobs as it merely counts people who are employed. Hence, GDP per person employed is somewhat underestimated in countries with a higher share of part-time workers, which are mostly OECD countries.

New business density

Number of newly registered corporations per 1,000 working-age (15–64 years old). The units of measurement are private, formal sector companies with limited liability.

Total computer software spending

Computer software spending includes the total value of purchased or leased packaged software such as operating systems, database systems, programming tools, utilities, and applications. It excludes expenditures for internal software development and outsourced custom software development.

ISO 9001 quality certificates

ISO 9001:2015 specifies requirements for a quality management system when an organization needs to demonstrate its ability to consistently provide products and services that meet customer and applicable statutory and regulatory requirements, and aims to enhance customer satisfaction through the effective application of the system, including processes for improving the system and assuring conformity to customer and applicable statutory and regulatory requirements.

High-tech manufacturing

High-tech and medium-high-tech output as a percentage of total manufactures output, on the basis of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) classification of Technology Intensity Definition.

IP receipts

Value according to the Extended Balance of Payments Services Classification EBOPS 2010—that is, code SH charges for the use of intellectual property not included elsewhere as a percentage of total trade. Receipts are between residents and non-residents for the use of proprietary rights (such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, industrial processes,and designs including trade secrets, franchises), and for licenses to reproduce or distribute (or both) intellectual property embodied in produced originals or prototypes (such as copyrights on books and manuscripts, computer software, cinematographic works, and sound recordings) and related rights (such as for live performances and television, cable, or satellite broadcast).

High Tech exports

High-technology exports minus re-exports (% of total trade):High-technology exports and imports contain technical products with a high intensity of R&D, defined by the Eurostat classification, which is based on Standard International Trade Classification (SITC).

ICT services export

Telecommunications, computer and information services (% of total trade) according to the Extended Balance of Payments Services Classification EBOPS 2010,

FDI outflows

Foreign direct investment” refers to the average of the most recent three years of direct investment equity flows in an economy. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, and other capital. Direct investment is a category of cross-border investment associated with a resident in one economy having control or a significant degree of influence on the management of an enterprise that is resident in another economy.

Production and export complexity

Trademark application class count by origin

A “trademark” is a sign used by the owner of certain products or provider of certain services to distinguish them from the products or services of other companies. A trademark can consist of words and/or combinations of words, such as slogans, names, logos, figures and images, letters, numbers, sounds, and moving images,or a combination thereof.

Industrial design by origin

Sum of Global Brand Values, top 5,000 as a percentage of GDP. Brand Finance calculates brand value using the Royalty Relief methodology, which determines the value a company would be willing to pay to license its brand as if it did not own it. The methodology is compliant with industry standards set in ISO 10668. ISO This approach involves estimating the future revenue attributable to a brand and calculating a royalty rate that would be charged for the use of the brand.

ICTs and business model creation

An “industrial design” is a set of exclusive rights granted by law to applicants for protecting the ornamental or aesthetic aspect of their products. An industrial design is valid for a limited period of time and within a limited territory. A resident industrial design application refers to an application filed with the IP office for or on behalf of the applicant’s country of residence."

ICTs and organizational model creation

Average answer to the question: In your country, to what extent do ICTs enable new organizational models (e.g.,virtual teams, remote working, telecommuting)

Global brand value, top 5,000

Cultural and creative services exports

World Trade Organization

National featue films produced

A film with a running time of 60 minutes or longer. It includes works of fiction, animation, and documentaries. It is intended for commercial exhibition in cinemas. Feature films produced exclusively for television broadcasting,as well as newsreels and advertising films, are excluded.

Entertainment and media market

The Global Entertainment & Media Outlook (the Outlook) is a comprehensive source of global analyses and five-year forecasts of consumer and advertising spending across 53 territories for 14 entertainment and media segments.

Printing publications and other media output

Printing, and reproduction of recorded media output (ISIC Revision 4 Division 18, group 181 with class 1811 and 1812 and group 182 with class 1820) as a percentage of total manufacturing output.

Creative goods exports

Total value of creative goods exports (current US$) over total trade.

Generic TLD

A generic top-level domain (gTLD) is one of the categories of top-level domains (TLDs) maintained by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) for use on the Internet. Generic TLDs can be unrestricted (.com, .info, .net, and.org) or restricted—that is, used on the basis of fulfilling eligibility criteria (.biz, .name, and .pro). Of these, the statistic covers the five generic domains .biz, .info, .org,.net, and .com.

Country code TLD

A country-code top-level domain (ccTLD) is one of the categories of top-level domains (TLDs) maintained by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) for use on the Internet. Country-code TLDs are two-letter domains especially designated for a particular economy, country, or autonomous territory"

Wikipedia yearly edits

Data extracted from Wikimedia Foundation’s internal data sources. Data reflects economies with more than 100,000 edit counts in 2019; The data exclude both contributions to the extent that is identifiable in the data sources. Data are reported per million population 15–69 years old.

Mobile apps creation

Global downloads of mobile apps, by origin of the headquarters of the developer/firm, scaled by PPP$ GDP (billions). Global downloads are compiled by App Annie Intelligence, public data sources, and the company’s proprietary forecast model based on data from Google play store and iOS App store in each country between January 1, 2019 and December 31, 2019.

E-Government Development Index

More and more in the world, public institutions are transforming their services to deliver them online. UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) develops this index to assess the digital government development of the 193 United Nations Member States in identifying their strengths, challenges and opportunities, as well as informing policies and strategies.

This index supports countries’ efforts to provide effective, accountable and inclusive digital services to all and to bridge the digital divides in fulfilling the principle of leaving no one behind.

Online Service Index

The Government Online Service Index (OIS) is one of the three main components of the E-Government Development Index (EGDI) constructed and published by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. The OIS assesses the quality of a government’s delivery of online services on a 0-to-1 (best) scale. The assessment is carried out by researchers, who evaluate “each country’s national website in the native language, including the national portal, e-services portal, and e-participation portal, as well as the websites of the related ministries of education, labor, social services, health, finance, and environment, as applicable.

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions per 100 inhabitants

Mobile cellular telephone subs per 100 inh:The term “mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions” refers to the number of subscriptions to a public mobile-telephone service providing access to the public switched telephone network using cellular technology. It includes both the number of postpaid subscriptions and the number of active prepaid accounts (i.e. accounts that have been active during the previous three months). It includes all mobile-cellular subscriptions that offer voice communications. It excludes subscriptions via data cards or USB modems, subscriptions to public mobile data services, private trunked mobile radio, telepoint, radio paging, machine-to-machine (M2M) and telemetry services.

Percentage of Individuals using the Internet

ICT use / Percentage of individuals using the Internet:“Internet users” refers to the proportion of individuals who used the Internet in the last 12 months. Data are generally based on national household surveys where the percentage should reflect the total population of the country.

Fixed (wired) broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants

Fixed wired broadband subscriptions include the total number of subscriptions to the following broadband technologies with download speeds of 256 kbit/s or greater: DSL, cable modem, fibre-to-the-home and other fixed technologies (such as broadband over power lines and leased lines). This indicator is measured in number of subscriptions per 100 inhabitants and in total number of subscriptions. "

Active mobile-broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants

ICT use / Active mobile broadband subscription per 100 inh:This indicator refers to the sum of active handset-based and computer-based mobile-broadband subscriptions to the public Internet, where users have accessed the Internet in the last three months. It covers actual subscribers, not potential subscribers, even though the latter may have broadband-enabled handsets.

Adult Literacy (%)

Adult literacy rate” is defined as the percentage of the population aged 15 years and over who can read, write, and understand a short, simple statement on his/her everyday life.

Gross Enrollment Ratio

The total number of students enrolled at the primary, secondary and tertiary level, regardless of age, as a percentage of the school-age population.

Expected Year of Schooling

The term “mean years of schooling” is the average number of completed years of education of a country’s population, excluding years spent repeating individual grades.

Mean Year of Schooling

The term “mean years of schooling” is the average number of completed years of education of a country’s population, excluding years spent repeating individual grades.

Digital Accessibility Rights Evaluation

Allowing persons with disability to access digital devices has important socio-economic impact on the national level.

This Index is a benchmarking tool, developed by G3ict, for disability advocates, governments, civil society, international organizations and policy makers to trace country progress in making Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) accessible for all, in compliance with Article 9 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD).

CRPD ratification (UN Treaty)

The Convention follows decades of work by the United Nations to change attitudes and approaches to persons with disabilities. It takes to a new height the movement from viewing persons with disabilities as “objects” of charity, medical treatment and social protection towards viewing persons with disabilities as “subjects” with rights, who are capable of claiming those rights and making decisions for their lives based on their free and informed consent as well as being active members of society.

General Law protecting the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

The Convention is intended as a human rights instrument with an explicit, social development dimension. It adopts a broad categorization of persons with disabilities and reaffirms that all persons with all types of disabilities must enjoy all human rights and fundamental freedoms. It clarifies and qualifies how all categories of rights apply to persons with disabilities and identifies areas where adaptations have to be made for persons with disabilities to effectively exercise their rights and areas where their rights have been violated, and where protection of rights must be reinforced.

Definition of ICT accessibility

ICT Accessibility Links to resources for making websites, public access terminals, telecommunication devices, and software accessible for people with disabilities.

Definition of Reasonable Accommodation

Reasonable Accommodation' means necessary and appropriate modification and adjustments not imposing a disproportionate or undue burden, where needed in a particular case, to ensure to persons with disabilities the enjoyment or exercise on an equal basis with others of all human rights and fundamental freedoms.” Additional dispositions affirming and detailing several areas of applicability of the notion of ‘Reasonable Accommodation,’

Universal Service Obligation includes Persons with Disabilities

Universal Service Obligation (USO) is a legislation adopted by most countries to equalize telecommunications services opportunities among all citizens. While historically USOs targeted rural populations, an increasing number of countries designate Persons with Disabilities as an underserved segment of the population. The main benefit of such designation is that it supports a funding mechanism (generally named as Universal Service Fund) based on recurring revenues generated by a tax on telecommunications services collected by operators. This provides a predictable source of funding, independent of annual governments budget cycles, to support services such as relay services or other ongoing accessibility services.

Merrakesh ratifaction

The Marrakesh Treaty was adopted on June 27, 2013 in Marrakesh, Morocco, and it forms part of the body of international copyright treaties administered by WIPO, the World Intellectual Property Organization. It has a clear humanitarian and social development dimension and its main goal is to create a set of mandatory limitations and exceptions for the benefit of the blind, visually impaired, and otherwise print disabled (VIPs).

Government agency for Persons with Disabilities

The government Agency for Persons with Disabilities works with local communities and private providers to support people who have developmental disabilities and their families in living, learning, and working in their communities; provides assistance in identifying the service needs of people with developmental disabilities; and educates the public on disability issues while focusing attention on employment for people with disabilities.

Government agency for ICTs

Governments play a key role in stimulating the introduction of ICT-enabled solutions adapted to the needs of persons with disabilities, increasing the availability of accessible ICT and promoting the affordability of assistive technologies in social, educational, economic and other domains. These benefits can be achieved through the promotion of national innovation systems that foster public-private collaboration, as well as development and diffusion of knowledge, accessible products and content as well as assistive technologies.

Process to involve DPOs in ICT accessibility policy making

The ITU-G3ict Model ICT accessibility policy report is a practical tool for national policy-makers and regulators, for creating ICT accessibility policy frameworks and promoting accessible ICTs and the empowerment of persons with disabilities. It looks at developing national policies in consultation with persons with disabilities, and includes six modules focused on different aspects of ICT accessibility:• amendments to the existing ICT legal framework• public ICT access• mobile communications• television/video programming• public procurement of accessible ICTs.

Country refers to international ICT accessibility standards

Country refers to information and communications technology (ICT) to enhance its livability, workability, and sustainability”. Cities should begin by understanding and adopting an appropriate ICT accessibility standard to help ensure their Smart Cities programs and digital services are inclusive of persons with disabilities and older persons.

ICT accessibility courses available at universities

Making reasonable accommodations in order to provide community members with disabilities an equal opportunity to participate in courses, programs, and activities. universties should ensure that the information and communication technology (ICT) that they create or provide in conducting its programs, services, and activities is accessible to people with disabilities.

Web

Web accessibility means that websites, tools, and technologies are designed and developed so that people with disabilities can use them. More specifically, people can: perceive, understand, navigate, and interact with the Web /contribute to the Web. Such as screen readers, speech recognition, video communication (for sign language communication and video relay interpretation), voice to text services (open and closed captioning, both real-time and embedded) and visual assistance.

TV & Multimedia

As far as traditional television sets and broadcasting services are concerned, these technologies continue providing visual, audio and text output through closed captioning. The introduction of digital TV is expanding the range of features and functions that can be enabled for persons with disabilities.

Mobile Telephone

Mobile phones have proved to be the ultimate technology to connect the disabled since they have features and services which cater for persons with any disability and can be used to read, write, connect to the Internet, talk and navigate independently.

E-books and digital contents

eBooks can become large-print books with only a few clicks, and most eBook readers offer fonts and line spacing that make reading easier for people who have dyslexia or other visual challenges. Because portable devices are light and easy to hold, eBooks are easier to use for some people who have physical disabilities. Digital information is inherently flexible, so it can be rendered in nearly any format our imaginations permit, such as audio, text, graphics, and movement.

Promoting the Internet among Persons with Disabilities

An accessible Internet holds enormous potential to heighten the inclusion of people with disabilities, facilitating telework, online education, participation in e-government, and formation of relationships that overcome barriers and challenges in the physical world.

Inclusive ICTs for all in education

The aim is to provide knowledge on contemporary educational approaches that draw on the principles of inclusive education and promote equal learning, participation and opportunities for all students, including students with disabilities. It is also an approach on the significance of the contribution of ICT use in the classroom as a learning tool and especially in the education of disabled students as it assures accessibility and active participation for all students.

Enabling ICTs for all in employment

The development, procurement, lease, maintenance and use of information and communication technology (ICT) are central to the operation of businesses today. To fully participate in the workforce, applicants and employees with certain types of disabilities (such as those with limited vision and hearing) must have access to and use of information and data that is comparable to the access and use by applicants and employees without these types of disabilities. For example, if an online application system is not accessible, some applicants with disabilities can never “get through the front door.

E-government and Smart Cities for all

the concepts of e-government and smart city are increasingly used to refer to one another and have started to converge. While e-government was introduced under the flag of better service delivery by focusing on internal processes and the use of information and communications technologies (ICTs) by administrations,the smart city for All Toolkit aims to fix the disparity in cities through smart technology, making cities both smart and accessible to a range of users regardless of their abilities or disabilities.

Enabling Assistive Technologies and ICTs for independent living

ICTs are utilised to both facilitate access and assist in independent living.More than any other ICT in use today, mobile devices and services have by far the greatest impact on independent living for persons with disabilities. At the basic level, feature phones provide a means of on-demand communication for the user through both SMS and voice calls. This in itself can enable independent living by ensuring that emergency services, family members, personal aides, assistive and everyday services are just a call or text away.

Procurement of accessible public goods and services for all citizens

A general term used to describe the degree of ease that something (e.g. device, service, environment) can be used and enjoyed by persons with a disability. The term implies conscious planning, design and/or effort to ensure it is barrier free to persons with a disability, and by extension, highly usable and practical for the general population as well"

E-Participation index

Digital technologies allow today to easily engage citizens in public decision-making processes and to let them participate in public consultations. The e-participation index (EPI) is derived as a supplementary index to the UN E-Government Survey. It extends the dimension of the Survey by focusing on the use of online services to facilitate provision of information by governments to citizens (“e-information sharing”), interaction with stakeholders (“e-consultation”), and engagement in decision-making processes (“e-decision making”).

The goal of e-participation initiatives should be to improve the citizen's access to information and public services; and promote participation in public decision-making which impacts the well-being of society, in general, and the individual, in particular.

Stage One (%)

E-information: Enabling participation by providing citizens with public information and access to information without or upon demand.

Stage Two (%)

E-decision-making: Empowering citizens through co-design of policy option and co-production of service components and delivery modalities.

Stage Three (%)

E-consultation: Engaging citizens in contributions to and deliberation on public policies and services.

B2C E-Commerce Index

The UNCTAD B2C E-commerce Index measures an economy’s preparedness to support online shopping. The index consists of four indicators that are highly related to online shopping and for which there is wide country coverage

The extent to which people shop online in a country is highly correlated with the value of the index

Share of individuals using the Internet

All individuals who have used the Internet in the last 3 month are counted as Internet users. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc

Share of individuals with an account

The percent of population that ages 15+ and has an account ownership at a financial institution or with a mobile-money-service provider

Secure Internet servers

The number of distinct, publicly-trusted TLS/SSL certificates found in the Netcraft Secure Server Survey

UPU postal reliability score

UPU postal reliability index considers the reliability, reach, relevance and resilience of the postal service

AI Readiness Index

The Gov AI readiness index measures national preparedness to harness AI technology for development. The index consists of 3 pillars, that cover 10 dimensions. The scores of these dimensions are calculated based on 33 KPIs.

The index shows that there is a global commitment to AI, as the number of national AI strategies is increasing.

Vision

Data protection and privacy legislation

As more and more social and economic activities have place online, the importance of privacy and data protection is increasingly recognized. Of equal concern is the collection, use and sharing of personal information to third parties without notice or consent of consumers. 128 out of 194 countries had put in place legislation to secure the protection of data and privacy.

Cybersecurity

The Global Cybersecurity Index (GCI) provides a measure of the level of cybersecurity commitment of countries. It is a composite index made up of 25 indicators that are distributed across five main pillars: Legal Measures, Technical Measures, Organizational Measures, Capacity Building Measures, and Cooperation Measures. Scores are standardized to a scale of 0 to 1.

National ethics framework

Categorizing and evaluating various AI Principles implemented by companies and national legislations

Legal framework's adaptability to digital business models

Response to the survey question “In your country, how fast is the legal framework of your country adapting to digital business models (e.g. e-commerce, sharing economy, fintech, etc.)?” [1= not fast at all; 7 = very fast]

Government procurement of advanced technology

The Government Online Service Index (OIS) is one of the three main components of the E-Government Development Index (EGDI) constructed and published by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. The OIS assesses the quality of a government’s delivery of online services on a 0-to-1 (best) scale. The assessment is carried out by researchers, who evaluate “each country’s national website in the native language, including the national portal, e-services portal, and e-participation portal, as well as the websites of the related ministries of education, labor, social services, health, finance, and environment, as applicable.

ICT use and government efficiency

The data refer to the simple mean of the average answers to a similarly worded question regarding five different emerging technologies: In your country, to what extent does the government foster investment (public and private) in Artificial intelligence and machine learning|Robotics|App- and web-enabled markets|Big data analytics|Cloud computing? (1: not at all; 7: to a great extent)

Online services

The Government Online Service Index (OIS) is one of the three main components of the E-Government Development Index (EGDI) constructed and published by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. The OIS assesses the quality of a government’s delivery of online services on a 0-to-1 (best) scale. The assessment is carried out by researchers, who evaluate “each country’s national website in the native language, including the national portal, e-services portal, and e-participation portal, as well as the websites of the related ministries of education, labor, social services, health, finance, and environment, as applicable.

Effectiveness of government

Index that reflects perceptions of the quality of public services, the quality of the civil service and the degree of its independence from political pressures, the quality of policy formulation and implementation, and the credibility of the government’s commitment to such policies.

Government's responsiveness to change

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent does the government respond effectively to change (e.g. technological changes, societal and demographic trends, security and economic challenges)?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]

Number of technology unicorns

A unicorn company, or unicorn startup, is a private company with a valuation over $1 billion. As of August 2021, there are more than 700 unicorns around the world. Popular former unicorns include Airbnb, Facebook and Google. Variants include a decacorn, valued at over $10 billion, and a hectocorn, valued at over $100 billions.

Market value of large technology firms

market value of public technologies companies

Value of trade in ICT services per capita (US $)

Value of trade in ICT services (per capita)

Value of trade in ICT goods per capita (US $)

Value of trade in ICT goods (per capita)

Computer software spending

Total computer software spending (% of GDP) . “Computer software spending” includes the total value of purchased or leased packaged software such as operating systems, database systems, programming tools, utilities, and applications. It excludes expenditures for internal software development and outsourced custom software development. The data are a combination of actual figures and estimates. Data are reported as a percentage of GDP.

Entrepreneurial culture

Attitudes towards entrepreneurial risk (Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent do people have an appetite for entrepreneurial risk?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent] Willingness to delegate authority (Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent does senior management delegate authority tosubordinates?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent] Growth of innovative companies (Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent do new companies with innovative ideas grow rapidly?”[1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent] Companies embracing disruptive ideas (Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent do companies embrace risky or disruptive business ideas?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]

Ease of Doing Business

Doing Business records all procedures officially required, or commonly done in practice, for an entrepreneur to start up and formally operate an industrial or commercial business, as well as the time and cost to complete these procedures and the paid-in minimum capital requirement . These procedures include the processes entrepreneurs undergo when obtaining all necessary approvals, licenses, and permits and completing any required notifications, verifications, or inscriptions for the company and employees with relevant authorities.

R&D spending

Expenditures for research and development are current and capital expenditures (both public and private) on creative work undertaken systematically to increase knowledge—including knowledge of humanity, culture and society—and the use of knowledge for new applications. R&D covers basic research, applied research and experimental development.

Company investment in emerging technologies

Average answer to the question: In your country, to what extent do companies invest in emerging technologies (e.g. Internet of Things, advanced analytics and artificial intelligence, augmented virtual reality and wearables, advanced robotics, 3D printing)? [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent].

Graduates in science & engineering

Graduates in STEM

Quality of engineering and technology higher education

Ranking of universities

Digital skills

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent does the active population possess sufficient digital skills (e.g. computer skills, basic coding, digital reading)?” [1 = not all; 7 = to a great extent]

Knowledge-intensive employment

Proportion of employed knowledge workers

Telecommunications infrastructure

The Survey is the only global report that assesses the e-government development status of all Member States of the United Nations. The assessment rates the e-government performance of countries relative to one another, as opposed to being an absolute measurement. It recognizes that each country should decide upon the level and extent of its e-government initiatives in keeping with its own national development priorities and achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. The Survey measures e-government effectiveness in the delivery of public services and identifies patterns in e-government development and performance as well as countries and areas where the potential of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) and e-government has not yet been fully exploited and where capacity development support might be helpful.

Availability of latest technologies

In your country, to what extent are the latest technologies available? [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]

5G Infrastructure

VIAVI empowers Service Providers and IT organizations to manage the network lifecycle for complex 5G and Fiber networks with intuitive instruments, systems and technologies; and our expertise in light management and optical coatings help protect the world’s bank notes from counterfeiters, enhance the colors you see, and enable advanced technology such as 3D sensing.

Internet bandwidth

International Internet bandwidth (b/s) per internet user:This indicator refers to the usage of all international links including fiber-optic cables, radio links, and traffic processed by satellite ground stations and teleports to orbital satellites

Open government data

A global measure of how governments are publishing and using open data for accountability, innovation and social impact.

Statistical Capacity

The World Bank’s Statistical Capacity Indicator is a composite score assessing the capacity of a country’s statistical system. It is based on a diagnostic framework assessing the following areas: methodology; data sources; and periodicity and timeliness. Countries are scored against 25 criteria in these areas, using publicly available information and/or country input. The overall Statistical Capacity score is then being calculated as simple average of all three area scores on a scale of 0-100.

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions

Mobile cellular telephone subs per 100 inh:The term “mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions” refers to the number of subscriptions to a public mobile‑telephone service providing access to the public switched telephone network using cellular technology. It includes both the number of postpaid subscriptions and the number of active prepaid accounts (i.e. accounts that have been active during the previous three months). It includes all mobile-cellular subscriptions that offer voice communications. It excludes subscriptions via data cards or USB modems, subscriptions to public mobile data services, private trunked mobile radio, telepoint, radio paging, machine-to-machine (M2M) and telemetry services.

Internet users (% of adult population)

ICT use / Percentage of individuals using the Internet:“Internet users” refers to the proportion of individuals who used the Internet in the last 12 months. Data are generally based on national household surveys where the percentage should reflect the total population of the country.

Gender gap in Internet use

This indicator refers to the share of, respectively, women and men in a country that use the Internet. Scores are calculated as the ratio of the share related to the female population over the share related to the male population.

Socioeconomic gap in Internet use

Economic inequalities in accessing to the Internet

Inequalities

Global Gender Gap Index

Gender parity has a fundamental bearing on whether or not economies and societies thrive. Developing and deploying one-half of the world’s available talent has a huge bearing on the growth, competitiveness and future-readiness of economies and businesses worldwide.

The index’s rankings, produced by WEF, offer an effective means to benchmark progress. They are designed to create global awareness of the challenges that gender gaps pose, as well as the opportunities that emerge when action is taken to reduce them.

Labour force participation rate

Proportion of a country’s working-age (15–64) female population that engages actively in the labour market, either by working or looking for work. (i.e. ratio of the number of women participating in the labour force to total labour force). Labour force data doesn’t take into account workers employed abroad. It includes ILO estimates for missing data.

Wage equality for similar work

Response to the survey question, “In your country, for similar work, to what extent are wages for women equal to those of men?” (1 = not at all, significantly below those of men; 7 = fully, equal to those of men).

Estimated earned income

The estimated female earned income is a proxy for how much command women have over a country’s economic resources. For each country, it is computed using female and male shares of the economically active population, the ratio of the female to male wages (both sourced from (both indicators are sourced from ILO), gross domestic product valued at constant 2017 international dollars (IMF), and female and male shares of population (World Bank). The methodology used to compute this indicator is adapted from the methodology developed by the United Nations Development Programme’s Human Development Report Office for computing the Gender Development Index (UNDP, 2020, page 6-7). Female and male wage measures used in the computation of the gender wage ratio correspond to the mean nominal monthly earnings of female and male employees, respectively. In the absence of wage data, a gender wage ratio of 0.75 is used in the computation of the wage bill. ILO’s measure of earning corresponds to the mean of monthly earnings of all employees in nominal terms. The earnings of employees relate to the gross remuneration in cash and in kind paid to employees, as a rule at regular intervals, for time worked or work done together with remuneration for time not worked, such as annual vacation, other type of paid leave or holidays. Earnings exclude employers’ contributions in respect of their employees paid to social security and pension schemes and also the benefits received estimated average annual earned income per capita in constant 2017 international dollars for women and men, respectively, and the ratio of the two values.

Legislators, senior officials and managers

Ratio of women to men employed in senior roles, defined by the International Labour Organization as those who plan, direct, coordinate and evaluate the overall activities of enterprises, governments and other organizations, or of organizational units within them, and formulate and review their policies, laws, rules and regulations. It corresponds to Major Group 1 of the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-08)

Professional and technical workers

Ratio of women to men employed in professional and technical roles, defined by the International Labour Organization as those who increase the existing stock of knowledge, apply scientific or artistic concepts and theories or those who perform technical and related tasks that require advanced knowledge and skill. It corresponds to the sum of Major Groups 2 and 3 of the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-08).

Literacy rate

Percentage of the adult population (over 15 years of age) of each gender with the ability to both read and write and make simple arithmetic calculations.

Enrolment in primary education

Percentage of girls and boys in the official primary school age range (net rate) who are enrolled in primary education (International Standard Classification of Education [ISCED] 1)

Enrolment in secondary education

Percentage of girls and boys in the official secondary school age range (net rate) who are enrolled in secondary education (ISCED 2 and 3). It excludes ISCED 4, which is post-secondary, non-tertiary education. Whenever data on this indicator is not available, the “Percentage of students in secondary education (ISCED 2 and 3) who are female” variable is used instead.

Enrolment in tertiary education

Total enrolment in tertiary education (gross rate), regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the most recent five-year age cohort that has left secondary school. Tertiary education consists of ISCED levels 5 to 8, and gross enrolment data should be examined within the context of a country structure regarding military service as well as propensity of students to seek education abroad.

Sex ratio at birth

Sex ratio at birth refers to male births per female births. The data are 5 year averages.

Healthy life expectancy

Average number of years that a person of each gender can expect to live in full health, calculated by taking into account years lived in less than full health due to disease and/or injury.

Women in parliament

Percentage of women holding parliamentary seats as a share of total parliamentary seats. In instances where a parliamentary system is bicameral, the figure used is the one for the lower house.

Women in ministerial positions

Percentage of women holding ministerial portfolios as a share of total ministry positions in each government. Some overlap between ministers and heads of government that also hold a ministerial portfolio may occur.

Years with female/male head of state (last 50)

The number of years in the past fifty-year period for which a woman has held a post equivalent to an elected head of state or head of government in the country. It takes into account prime ministers and/or presidents, royalties are not considered. It takes into account prime ministers and/or presidents, and royalties are not considered.

Economic diversification, competitiveness

Doing Business Index

The Doing Business index provides objective measures of business regulations and their enforcement across 190 economies and selected cities at the subnational and regional level.

Launched in 2002 by the World Bank, the index looks at domestic small and medium-size companies and measures the regulations applying to them through their life cycle.

Procedures (number) - Men

A procedure is defined as any interaction of the company founders with external parties (for example, government agencies, lawyers, auditors, or notaries) or spouses (if legally required). Interactions between company founders or company officers and employees are not counted as procedures. Procedures that must be completed in the same building but in different offices or at different counters are counted as separate procedures.

Procedures (number) - Women

A procedure is defined as any interaction of the company founders with external parties (for example, government agencies, lawyers, auditors, or notaries) or spouses (if legally required). Interactions between company founders or company officers and employees are not counted as procedures. Procedures that must be completed in the same building but in different offices or at different counters are counted as separate procedures.

Time (days) - Men

Time is recorded in calendar days. The measure captures the median duration that incorporation lawyers or notaries indicate is necessary in practice to complete a procedure with minimum follow-up with government agencies and no unofficial payments. It is assumed that the minimum time required for each procedure is one day, except for procedures that can be fully completed online, for which the minimum time required is recorded as half a day.

Time (days) - Women

Time is recorded in calendar days. The measure captures the median duration that incorporation lawyers or notaries indicate is necessary in practice to complete a procedure with minimum follow-up with government agencies and no unofficial payments. It is assumed that the minimum time required for each procedure is one day, except for procedures that can be fully completed online, for which the minimum time required is recorded as half a day.

Cost - Men (% of income per capita)

Cost is recorded as a percentage of the economy’s income per capita. It includes all official fees and fees for legal or professional services if such services are required by law or commonly used in practice. Fees for purchasing and legalizing company books are included if these transactions are required by law. Although VAT registration can be counted as a separate procedure, VAT is not part of the incorporation cost.

Cost - Women (% of income per capita)

Cost is recorded as a percentage of the economy’s income per capita. It includes all official fees and fees for legal or professional services if such services are required by law or commonly used in practice. Fees for purchasing and legalizing company books are included if these transactions are required by law. Although VAT registration can be counted as a separate procedure, VAT is not part of the incorporation cost.

Minimum capital (% of income per capita)

The paid-in minimum capital requirement reflects the amount that the entrepreneur needs to deposit in a bank or with a third party (for example, a notary) before registration or up to three months after incorporation. It is recorded as a percentage of the economy’s income per capita. The amount is typically specified in the commercial code or the company law. The legal provision needs to be adopted, enforced, and fully implemented. Any legal limitation of the company’s operations or decisions related to the payment of the minimum capital requirement is recorded. In case the legal minimum capital is provided per share, it is multiplied by the number of shareholders owning the company. Many economies require minimum capital but allow businesses to pay only a part of it before registration, with the rest to be paid after the first year of operation.

Procedures (number)

A procedure is any interaction of the building company’s employees, managers, or any party acting on behalf of the company with external parties, including government agencies, notaries, the land registry, the cadastre, utility companies, public inspectors, and any external private inspectors and technical experts hired where needed.

Time (days)

Time is recorded in calendar days. The measure captures the median duration that local experts indicate is necessary to complete a procedure in practice. It is assumed that the minimum time required for each procedure is one day, except for procedures that can be fully completed online, for which the time required is recorded as half a day.

Cost (% of warehouse value)

Cost is recorded as a percentage of the warehouse value (assumed to be 50 times income per capita). Only official costs are recorded. All fees associated with completing the procedures to legally build a warehouse are recorded, including those associated with obtaining land use approvals and preconstruction design clearances; receiving inspections before, during, and after construction; obtaining utility connections; and registering the warehouse at the property registry. Nonrecurring taxes required for the completion of the warehouse project are also recorded. Sales taxes (such as VAT) or capital gains taxes are not recorded, nor are deposits that must be paid up front and are later refunded. The building code, information from local experts, specific regulations, and fee schedules are used as sources for costs. If several local partners provide different estimates, the median reported value is used.

Building quality control index (0–15)

The building quality control index is based on six indexes—the quality of building regulations; quality control before, during, and after construction; liability and insurance regimes; and professional certifications indexes

Procedures (number) - Electricity

Getting electricity / procedure(number): A procedure is defined as any interaction of the company’s employees or its main electrician or electrical engineer (that is, the one who may have done the internal wiring) with external parties, such as the electricity distribution utility, electricity supply utilities, government agencies, electrical contractors, and electrical firms. Interactions between company employees and steps related to the internal electrical wiring, such as the design and execution of the internal electrical installation plans, are not counted as procedures.

Time (days) - Electricity

Getting electricity / Time (days):Time is recorded in calendar days. The measure captures the median duration that the electricity utility and experts indicate is necessary in practice, rather than required by law, to complete a procedure with minimum follow-up and no extra payments. It is assumed that the minimum time required for each procedure is one day. Although procedures may take place simultaneously, they cannot start on the same day (that is, simultaneous procedures start on consecutive days). It is assumed that the company does not waste time and commits to completing each remaining procedure without delay. The time spent by an entrepreneur on preparing information to fill in forms is not measured. It is assumed that the company is aware of all electricity connection requirements and their sequence from the beginning.

Cost (% of income per capita)

Getting electricity / Cost (% of income per capita):Cost is recorded as a percentage of the economy’s income per capita and is exclusive of VAT. All the fees and costs associated with completing the procedures to connect a warehouse to electricity are recorded, including those related to obtaining clearances from government agencies, applying for the connection, receiving inspections of both the site and the internal wiring, purchasing material, getting the actual connection works, and paying a security deposit. Information from local experts and specific regulations and fee schedules are used as sources. If several local partners provide different estimates, the median reported value is used. In all cases the cost excludes bribes.

Reliability of supply and transparency of tariffs index (0–8)

Getting electricity / Reliability of supply and transparency of tariffs index (0–8):Doing Business uses the system average interruption duration index (SAIDI) and the system average interruption frequency index (SAIFI) to measure the duration and frequency of power outages in the largest business city of each economy (for 11 economies the data are also collected for the second-largest business city). SAIDI is the average total duration of outages over the course of a year for each customer served, whereas SAIFI is the average number of service interruptions experienced by a customer in a year.

Procedures (number) - Property

A procedure is defined as any interaction of the buyer, the seller, or their agents (if an agent is legally or in practice required) with external parties, including government agencies, inspectors, public notaries, architects, surveyors, and others.

Time (days) - Property

Time is recorded in calendar days. The measure captures the median duration that property lawyers, notaries, or registry officials indicate is necessary to complete a procedure. It is assumed that the minimum time required for each procedure is one day, except for procedures that can be fully completed online, for which the time required is recorded as half a day.

Cost (% of property value)

Cost is recorded as a percentage of the property value, assumed to be equivalent to 50 times income per capita. Only official costs required by law are recorded, including fees, transfer taxes, stamp duties, and any other payment to the property registry, notaries, public agencies, or lawyers. Other taxes, such as capital gains tax or VAT, are excluded from the cost measure.

Quality of land administration index (0–30)

The quality of land administration index is composed of five other indexes:the reliability of infrastructure, transparency of information, geographic coverage, land dispute resolution, and equal access to property rights. Data are collected for each economy’s largest business city.

Strength of legal rights index (0-12)

The strength of legal rights index measures the degree to which collateral and bankruptcy laws protect the rights of borrowers and lenders and thus facilitate lending. For each economy it is first determined whether a unitary secured transactions system exists.

Depth of credit information index (0-8)

The depth of credit information index measures rules and practices affecting the coverage, scope, and accessibility of credit information available through either a credit bureau or a credit registry.

Extent of disclosure index (0-10)

The extent of disclosure index has five components: • Which corporate body can provide legally sufficient approval for the transaction. • Whether an external body (an independent auditor, for example) must review the transaction before it takes place. • Whether disclosure by Mr. James to the board of directors or the supervisory board is required. • Whether immediate disclosure of the transaction to the public, the regulator, or the shareholders is required • Whether disclosure in periodic filings (for example, annual reports) is required.

Extent of director liability index (0-10)

The extent of director liability index has seven components: • Whether shareholders can sue directly or derivatively for the damage the transaction causes to the company. • Whether a shareholder plaintiff can hold Mr. James liable for the damage the Buyer–Seller transaction causes to the company. • Whether a shareholder plaintiff can hold other executives and directors (the CEO, members of the board of directors, or members of the supervisory board) liable for the damage the transaction causes to the company. • Whether Mr. James pays damages for the harm caused to the company upon a successful claim by the shareholder plaintiff. • Whether Mr. James repays profits made from the transaction upon a successful claim by the shareholder plaintiff. • Whether Mr. James is disqualified upon a successful claim by the shareholder plaintiff. • Whether a court can void the transaction upon a successful claim by a shareholder plaintiff.

Ease of shareholder suits index (0-10)

The ease of shareholder suits index has six components: • Whether shareholders owning 10% of the company’s share capital have the right to inspect the Buyer–Seller transaction documents before filing a suit. • What range of documents is available to the shareholder plaintiff from the defendant and witnesses during trial. • Whether the plaintiff can obtain categories of relevant documents from the defendant without identifying each document specifically. • Whether the plaintiff can directly examine the defendant and witnesses during trial. • Whether the standard of proof for civil suits is lower than that for a criminal case. • Whether shareholder plaintiffs can recover their legal expenses from the company.

Extent of shareholder rights index (0-6)

For each component of the extent of shareholder rights index, The index has six components: • Whether the sale of 51% of Buyer’s assets requires shareholder approval. • Whether shareholders representing 10% of Buyer’s share capital have the right to call for a meeting of shareholders. • Whether Buyer must obtain its shareholders’ approval every time it issues new shares. • Whether shareholders automatically receive preemption rights when Buyer issues new shares. • Whether shareholders elect and dismiss the external auditor. • Whether changes to the rights of a class of shares are only possible if the holders of the affected shares approve.

Extent of ownership and control index (0-7)

For each component of the extent of ownership and control index, . The index has seven components: • Whether the same individual cannot be appointed CEO and chairperson of the board of directors. • Whether the board of directors must include independent non-executive board members. • Whether shareholders can remove members of the board of directors without cause before the end of their term. • Whether the board of directors must have an audit committee. • Whether a potential acquirer must make a tender offer to all shareholders upon acquiring 50% of Buyer. • Whether Buyer must pay declared dividends within a maximum period set by law. • Whether a subsidiary cannot acquire shares issued by its parent company

Extent of corporate transparency index (0-7)

Extent of corporate transparency index For each component of the extent of corporate transparency index, . The index has seven components: • Whether Buyer must disclose direct and indirect beneficial ownership stakes representing 5%. • Whether Buyer must disclose information about board members’ primary employment and directorships in other companies. • Whether Buyer must disclose the compensation of individual managers. • Whether a detailed notice of general meeting must be sent 21 calendar days before the meeting. • Whether shareholders representing 5% of Buyer’s share capital can put items on the general meeting agenda. • Whether Buyer’s annual financial statements must be audited by an external auditor. • Whether Buyer must disclose its audit reports to the public.

Payments (number per year)

The tax payments indicator reflects the total number of taxes and contributions paid, the method of payment, the frequency of payment, the frequency of filing, and the number of agencies involved for the standardized case study company during the second year of operation . It includes taxes withheld by the company, such as sales tax, VAT, and employee-borne labor taxes.

Time (hours per year)

Time is recorded in hours per year. The indicator measures the time taken to prepare, file, and pay three major types of taxes and contributions: the corporate income tax, value added or sales tax, and labor taxes, including payroll taxes and social contributions.

Total tax and contribution rate (% of profit)

The total tax and contribution rate measures the amount of taxes and mandatory contributions borne by the business in the second year of operation, expressed as a share of commercial profit.The total tax and contribution rate is designed to provide a comprehensive measure of the cost of all the taxes a business bears.

Time to comply with VAT refund (hours)

Time is recorded in hours. The indicator has two parts: • The process of claiming a VAT refund. Time includes time spent by TaxpayerCo. • The process of a VAT audit. This is captured if companies with a request for a VAT cash refund due to a capital purchase are pooled into additional review in 50% or more of cases. Time includes time spent by TaxpayerCo.

Time to obtain VAT refund (weeks)

Time is recorded in weeks. Time measures the total waiting time to receive a VAT refund from the moment the request has been submitted.

Time to comply with a corporate income tax correction (hours)

Time is recorded in hours. The indicator has two parts: • The process of notifying the tax authorities of the error, amending the return, and making additional payment. Time includes time spent by TaxpayerCo. • The process of complying with a corporate income tax correction.

Time to complete a corporate income tax correction (weeks)

Time is recorded in weeks. Time includes the time to start an audit from the moment the tax authority has been notified of the error in the corporate income tax return, time spent by TaxpayerCo.

Time to export: Documentary compliance (hours)

Documentary compliance captures the time and cost associated with compliance with the documentary requirements of all government agencies of the origin economy, the destination economy, and any transit economies .The aim is to measure the total burden of preparing the bundle of documents that will enable completion of the international trade for the product and partner pair assumed in the case study.

Time to import: Documentary compliance (hours)

Documentary compliance captures the time and cost associated with compliance with the documentary requirements of all government agencies of the origin economy, the destination economy, and any transit economies .The aim is to measure the total burden of preparing the bundle of documents that will enable completion of the international trade for the product and partner pair assumed in the case study.

Time to export: Border compliance (hours)

Border compliance captures the time and cost associated with compliance with the economy’s customs regulations and with regulations relating to other inspections that are mandatory in order for the shipment to cross the economy’s border, as well as the time and cost for handling that takes place at its port or border. The time and cost for this segment include time and cost for customs clearance and inspection procedures conducted by other agencies.

Time to import: Border compliance (hours)

Border compliance captures the time and cost associated with compliance with the economy’s customs regulations and with regulations relating to other inspections that are mandatory in order for the shipment to cross the economy’s border, as well as the time and cost for handling that takes place at its port or border. The time and cost for this segment include time and cost for customs clearance and inspection procedures conducted by other agencies.

Cost to export: Documentary compliance (USD)

Documentary compliance captures the time and cost associated with compliance with the documentary requirements of all government agencies of the origin economy, the destination economy, and any transit economies .The aim is to measure the total burden of preparing the bundle of documents that will enable completion of the international trade for the product and partner pair assumed in the case study.

Cost to import: Documentary compliance (USD)

Documentary compliance captures the time and cost associated with compliance with the documentary requirements of all government agencies of the origin economy, the destination economy, and any transit economies .The aim is to measure the total burden of preparing the bundle of documents that will enable completion of the international trade for the product and partner pair assumed in the case study.

Cost to export: Border compliance (USD)

Border compliance captures the time and cost associated with compliance with the economy’s customs regulations and with regulations relating to other inspections that are mandatory in order for the shipment to cross the economy’s border, as well as the time and cost for handling that takes place at its port or border. The time and cost for this segment include time and cost for customs clearance and inspection procedures conducted by other agencies. T

Cost to import: Border compliance (USD)

Border compliance captures the time and cost associated with compliance with the economy’s customs regulations and with regulations relating to other inspections that are mandatory in order for the shipment to cross the economy’s border, as well as the time and cost for handling that takes place at its port or border. The time and cost for this segment include time and cost for customs clearance and inspection procedures conducted by other agencies.

Time (days) - Contracts

Time is recorded in calendar days, counted from the moment Seller decides to file the lawsuit in court until payment. This time includes both the days when actions take place and the waiting periods in between.

Cost (% of claim)

Cost is recorded as a percentage of the claim value, assumed to be equivalent to 200% of income per capita or $5,000, whichever is greater. Three types of costs are recorded: average attorney fees, court costs, and enforcement costs. "

Quality of judicial processes index (0-18)

The quality of judicial processes index measures whether each economy has adopted a series of good practices in its court system in four areas: court structure and proceedings, case management, court automation, and alternative dispute resolution.

Recovery rate (cents on the dollar)

The recovery rate is recorded as cents on the dollar recovered by secured creditors through judicial reorganization, liquidation, or debt enforcement (foreclosure or receivership) proceedings.

Strength of insolvency framework index (0-16)

The strength of insolvency framework index is based on four other indexes: commencement of proceedings index, management of debtor’s assets index, reorganization proceedings index, and creditor participation index.

Global Competitiveness Index

This index assesses the competitiveness landscape of 141 economies, providing unique insight into the drivers of economic growth in the era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. It aims to provide insights about economic growth, which remains crucial for improving living standards.

It also explores the relationship between competitiveness, shared prosperity and environmental sustainability, showing that there is no inherent trade-off between building competitiveness, creating more equitable societies that provide opportunity for all and transitioning to environmentally sustainable systems.

Business costs of organized crime

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent does organized crime (mafia-oriented racketeering, extortion) impose costs on businesses?” [1 = to a great extent, imposes huge costs; 7 = not at all, imposes no costs]

Homicide rate

“Intentional homicide” refers to unlawful death inflicted upon a person with the intent to cause death or serious injury. More details about the methodology can be found at https://dataunodc. un.org/crime/intentional-homicide-victims.

Terrorism incidence

This indicator has two components: the number of terrorismrelated casualties (injuries and fatalities) and the number of terrorist attacks over a five-year period, with each year assigned half the weight of the following year. Each component is normalized on a 0 to 100 scale, with 100 meaning “no casualty” and “no attack”, respectively, and then averaged.

Reliability of police services

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent can police services be relied upon to enforce law and order?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]

Social capital

Score on the Social Capital pillar of the Legatum Prosperity Index™, which assesses social cohesion and engagement, community and family networks, and political participation and institutional trust. The scale ranges from 0 (low) to 100 (high) This indicator measures national performance in three areas: social cohesion and engagement (bridging social capital), community and family networks (bonding social capital), and political participation and institutional trust (linking social capital). More details about the methodology can be found at http://www. prosperity.com/about/methodology.

Budget transparency

The index assigns countries covered by the Open Budget Survey a transparency score on a 100-point scale using a subset of questions that assess the amount and timeliness of budget information that governments make publicly available in eight key budget documents in accordance with international good practice standards. The eight key documents are: Pre-Budget Statement; Executive’s Budget Proposal and Supporting Documents for the Executive’s Budget Proposal; Enacted Budget; Citizens Budget; In-Year Reports; Mid-Year Review; Year-End Report; and Audit Report. For more information about the index and underlying survey methodologies, see https://www.internationalbudget.org/ open-budget-survey/methodology/.

Judicial independence

Response to the survey question “In your country, how independent is the judicial system from influences of the government, individuals, or companies?” [1 = not independent at all; 7 = entirely independent]

Efficiency of legal framework in challenging regulations

Efficiency of legal framework in challenging regulations

Freedom of the press

The index measures media independence, the quality of the infrastructure that supports the production of news, and information and acts of violence against journalists. It is based on two sources: (1) a database of the level of abuses and violence against journalists and media; and (2) an expert opinion survey on pluralism, media independence, self-censorship, transparency and infrastructure in each country. More details about the methodology can be found at https://rsf.org/en/world-press-freedom-index.

Burden of government regulation

Response to the survey question “In your country, how burdensome is it for companies to comply with public administration’s requirements (e.g. permits, regulations, reporting)?” [1 = extremely burdensome; 7 = not burdensome at all]

Efficiency of legal framework in settling disputes

Efficiency of legal framework in settling disputes

E-Participation

The E-Participation Index measures the use of online services to facilitate provision of information by governments to citizens (“e-information sharing”), interaction with stakeholders (“e-consultation”) and engagement in decision-making processes (“e-decision making”). More details about the methodology can be found at https://publicadministration.un.org.

Future orientation of government

Average of the responses to the following four Executive Opinion Survey questions: 1) “In your country, how fast is the legal framework of your country in adapting to digital business models (e.g. e-commerce, sharing economy, fintech, etc.)?” [1 = not fast at all; 7 = very fast]; 2) “In your country, to what extent does the government ensure a stable policy environment for doing business?”; 3) “In your country, to what extent does the government respond effectively to change (e.g. technological changes, societal and demographic trends, security and economic challenges)?”; and 4) “In your country, to what extent does the government have a long-term vision in place?”. For the last three questions, the answer ranges from 1 (not at all) to 7 (to a great extent).

Incidence of corruption

The index aggregates data from a number of different sources that provide perceptions of business people and country experts of the level of corruption in the public sector. More details about the methodology can be found at https://www.transparency.org/cpi.

Property rights

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent are property rights, including financial assets, protected?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]

Intellectual property protection

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent is intellectual property protected?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]

Quality of land administration

The index has five components: reliability of infrastructure, transparency of information, geographic coverage, land dispute resolution, and equal access to property rights. Data is collected for each economy’s largest business city. More details about the methodology can be found at http://www.doingbusiness.org/Methodology.

Strength of auditing and accounting standards

Response to the survey question “In your country, how strong are financial auditing and reporting standards?” [1 = extremely weak; 7 = extremely strong]

Conflict of interest regulation

The index assesses three dimensions of regulation that address conflicts of interest: 1) transparency of related-party transactions, 2) shareholders’ ability to sue and hold directors liable for self-dealing, and 3) access to evidence and allocation of legal expenses in shareholder litigation. More details about the methodology can be found at http://www.doingbusiness.org/Methodology

Shareholder governance

The index assesses three dimensions of good governance: (1) shareholders’ rights and role in major corporate decisions, (2) governance safeguards protecting shareholders from undue board control and entrenchment, and (3) corporate transparency on ownership stakes, compensation, audits and financial prospects. More details about the methodology can be found at http://www. doingbusiness.org/Methodology

Quality of road network

Score on the Road Connectivity Index, which measures average speed and straightness of a driving itinerary connecting the 10 or more largest cities that together account for at least 15% of the economy’s total population. This Index, developed by the World Economic Forum, comprises two elements: (1) a measure of the average speed of a driving itinerary connecting the 10 or more largest cities in an economy accounting for at least 15% of the economy’s total population; and (2) a measure of road straightness. The itinerary was not optimized and connects the cities from the largest to the smallest. Any leg involving a ferry was excluded from the average speed calculation. As a first step to the identification of cities to include in the itinerary, pairwise distances (“as the crow flies”) were calculated, and when the distance was less than 20 kilometres, the smallest city in the pair was excluded. The road straightness corresponds to the ratio of the sum of driving distances between each city in the journey to the sum of crow-fly distances between each city in the journey. For this component, legs involving a ferry were included. The APIs of Google Directions and Open Street Map were used to compute the itinerary.

Quality of road infrastructure

Response to the survey question “In your country, what is the quality (extensiveness and condition) of road infrastructure?” [1 = extremely poor—among the worst in the world; 7 = extremely good—among the best in the world]

Railroad density

Kilometres of railroad per 1,000 square kilometres of land .

Efficiency of train services

Efficiency of train services Response to the survey question “In your country, how efficient (i.e. frequency, punctuality, speed, price) are train transport services?” [1 = extremely inefficient, among the worst in the world; 7 = extremely efficient, among the best in the world] ."

Airport connectivity

Airport connectivity For each airport, the number of available seats to each destination is weighted by the size of the destination airport (in terms of number of passengers handled). The weighted totals are then summed for all destinations, then for all airports in the country to produce a score. A log transformation is applied to the raw value before converting it to the 0 to 100 score."

Efficiency of air transport services

Efficiency of air transport services Response to the survey question “In your country, how efficient (i.e. frequency, punctuality, speed, price) are air transport services?” [1 = extremely inefficient, among the worst in the world; 7 = extremely efficient, among the best in the world] "

Liner shipping connectivity

Liner shipping connectivity Score on the Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, which assesses a country’s connectivity to global shipping networks. The index uses an open scale, with the benchmark score of 100 corresponding to the most connected country in 2004 (China), Does not apply to land-locked countries. The index is based on five components of the maritime transport sector: the number of ships, their container-carrying capacity, the maximum vessel size, the number of services and the number of companies that deploy container ships in a country’s ports.

Efficiency of seaport services

Efficiency of seaport services Response to the survey question “In your country, how efficient (i.e. frequency, punctuality, speed, price) are seaport services (ferries, boats)?” [1 = extremely inefficient, among the worst in the world; 7 = extremely efficient, among the best in the world]. Does not apply to land-locked countries. "

Electricity access

Electricity access entails a household having initial access to sufficient electricity to power a basic bundle of energy services— at a minimum, several lightbulbs, task lighting (such as a flashlight), phone.

Electricity quality

Electric power transmission and distribution losses are losses in transmission between sources of supply and points of distribution and in the distribution to consumers, including pilferage.

Exposure to unsafe drinking water

Risk-weighted percentage of population exposed to unsafe drinking water. This indicator is reported as a summary exposure value (SEV): it measures a population’s exposure to unsafe drinking water, taking into account the extent of exposure by risk level and the severity of that risk’s contribution to disease burden. The indicator ranges from 0, when no excess risk for a population exists, to 1, when the population is at the highest level of risk.

Reliability of water supply

Access to basic services / Reliability of water supply Response to the survey question “In your country, how reliable is the water supply (lack of interruptions and flow fluctuations)?” [1 = extremely unreliable; 7 = extremely reliable]

Mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions

Mobile cellular telephone subs per 100 inh:The term “mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions” refers to the number of subscriptions to a public mobile-telephone service providing access to the public switched telephone network using cellular technology. It includes both the number of postpaid subscriptions and the number of active prepaid accounts (i.e. accounts that have been active during the previous three months). It includes all mobile-cellular subscriptions that offer voice communications. It excludes subscriptions via data cards or USB modems, subscriptions to public mobile data services, private trunked mobile radio, telepoint, radio paging, machine-to-machine (M2M) and telemetry services.

Mobile-broadband subscriptions

ICT use / Active mobile broadband subscription per 100 inh

Fixed-broadband internet subscriptions

ICT use / fixed-broadband subscriptions per 100 inh:The term “fixed-broadband subscriptions” refers to fixed subscriptions for high-speed access to the public Internet (a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)/IP connection) at downstream speeds equal to or higher than 256 kbit/s. This includes cable modem, DSL, fibre-to-the-home/building, other fixed (wired)-broadband subscriptions, satellite broadband and terrestrial fixed wireless broadband. The total is measured irrespective of the method of payment. It excludes subscriptions that have access to data communications (including the Internet) via mobile-cellular networks. It includes fixed WiMAX and any other fixed wireless technologies, and both residential subscriptions and subscriptions for organizations.

Fiber internet subscriptions

This indicator refers to the number of internet subscriptions using fibre-to-the-home or fibre-to-the-building at downstream speeds equal to or greater than 256 kb/s. This should include subscriptions where fibre goes directly to the subscriber’s premises or fibre-to-the-building subscriptions that terminate no more than two metres from an external wall of the building. Fibreto-the-cabinet and fibre-to-the-node are excluded

Internet users

ICT use / Percentage of individuals using the Internet:“Internet users” refers to the proportion of individuals who used the Internet in the last 12 months. Data are generally based on national household surveys where the percentage should reflect the total population of the country.

Inflation

Inflation is normalized in a U-shaped function to capture the detrimental effects of high inflation and deflation. Countries with inflation rates between 0.5% and 4% receive the highest possible score of 100. Outside this range, scores decrease linearly as the distance between the optimal value and the actual value increases. Because of the special conversion applied to this indicator, the ranking for this indicator is based on progress scores rather than raw values

Debt dynamics

Index measuring the change in public debt, weighted by a country’s credit rating and debt level in relation to its GDP This indicator is a category-based min-max normalization of the debt change. The debt change is the difference between the 2017 and 2018 of the debt-to-GDP ratio expected values. To transform the debt change value into a 0 to 100 score, each country was assigned to a specific category that determined the value boundaries. Categories are based on three criteria: general credit rating, government debt-to-GDP level for the year 2017, and country classification (1 if country is considered advanced, 0 otherwise, according to IMF’s classification). The general credit rating for each country is computed as the average of Fitch, Standard and Poor’s (S&P) and Moody’s credit ratings. Based on these criteria, 12 cases were identified: (1) if a country’s average rating is rated as “investment grade 1” and its debt-to-GDP level is less than 60%, its debt change is normalized 100;(2) if a country’s average rating is rated as “investment grade 1” and its debt-to-GDP level is less than 110%, its debt change is normalized to a score between 90 and 100; (3) if a country’s average rating is graded as “investment grade 1” and its debt-to-GDP level is greater than 110%, its debt change is normalized to a score between 80 and 90; (4) if the average credit rating is rated as “investment grade 2” and the debt level is lower than 110%, its debt change is normalized to a score between 70 and 80; (5) if the average credit rating is “investment grade 2” and the debt level is greater than 110%, its debt change is normalized to a score between 60 and 70; (6) if the average credit rating is “speculative”, the debt level is less than 110% and the country classification is “advanced”, its debt change is normalized to a score between 50 and 60; (7) if the average credit rating is “speculative”, the debt level is greater than 110% and the country classification is “advanced”, its debt change is normalized to a score between 40 and 50; (8) if the average credit rating is “speculative”, the debt level is less than 60% and the country classification is “developing”, its debt change is normalized to a score between 40 and 50; (9) if the average credit rating is “speculative”, the debt level is greater than 60% and the country classification is “developing”, its debt change is normalized to a score between 30 and 40; (10) if the average credit rating is “default”, the debt change is normalized to a score between 0 and 30; (11) if a country does not receive a credit rating from any rating agency and its debt level is below 60%, its debt change is normalized to a score between 40 and 50; and (12) if a country does not receive a credit rating from a rating agency and its debt is above 60% of GDP, its debt change is normalized to a score between 30 and 40. To determine the final value of the debt dynamics indicator within the assigned boundaries, we’ve calculated the normalized debt change, which ranges from a minimum observed value of 0 and the maximum observed value of 20. As part of the normalization process, we assigned a score equivalent to the minimum value of each bracket if the debt change was 20% or higher; assigned the maximum value of the bracket if the debt change was 0% or lower; and assigned a score between the two values if the debt change was between 0% and 20%.

Healthy life expectancy

Average number of years that a person of each gender can expect to live in full health, calculated by taking into account years lived in less than full health due to disease and/or injury.

Mean years of schooling

Average number of completed years of education of a country’s population aged 25 years and older, excluding years spent repeating individual grades.

Extent of staff training

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent do companies invest in training and employee development?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]

Quality of vocational training

Response to the survey question “In your country, how do you assess the quality of vocational training?” [1 = extremely poor among the worst in the world; 7 = excellent among the best in the world]

Skillset of graduates

Average score of the following two Executive Opinion Survey questions: “In your country, to what extent do graduating students from secondary education possess the skills needed by businesses?” and “In your country, to what extent do graduating students from university possess the skills needed by businesses?” In each case, the answer ranges from 1 (not at all) to 7 (to a great extent).

Digital skills among active population

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent does the active population possess sufficient digital skills (e.g. computer skills, basic coding, digital reading)?” [1 = not all; 7 = to a great extent]

Ease of finding skilled employees

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent can companies find people with the skills required to fill their vacancies?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent].

School life expectancy

This indicator assumes that the probability of a person being enrolled in school at any particular future age is equal to the current enrolment ratio at that age. More details about the methodology can be found at http://uis.unesco.org/en/glossary.

Critical thinking in teaching

Response to the survey question “In your country, how do you assess the style of teaching?” [1 = frontal, teacher based, and focused on memorizing; 7 = encourages creative and critical individual thinking]

Pupil-to-teacher ratio in primary education

Pupil-to-teacher ratio in primary education

Distortive effect of taxes and subsidies on competition

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent do fiscal measures (subsidies, tax breaks, etc.) distort competition?” [1 = distort competition to a great extent; 7 = do not distort competition at all]

Extent of market dominance

Response to the survey question “In your country, how do you characterize corporate activity?” [1 = dominated by a few business groups; 7 = spread among many firms].

Competition in services

Average of the scores of the three components of the following Executive Opinion Survey question: “In your country, how competitive is the provision of the following services: professional services (legal services, accounting, engineering, etc.); retail services; and network sector (telecommunications, utilities, postal, transport, etc.)?” In each case, the answer ranges from 1 (not at all competitive) to 7 (extremely competitive).

Prevalence of non-tariff barriers

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent do non-tariff barriers (e.g. health and product standards, technical and labelling requirements, etc.) limit the ability of imported goods to compete in the domestic market?” [1 = strongly limit; 7 = do not limit at all]

Trade tariffs

The weighted mean applied tariff is the average of effectively applied rates weighted by the product import shares corresponding to each partner country. Applied tariffs are considered to be the tariff rates applied by a customs administration on imported goods. They are the rates published by national customs authorities for duty administration purposes.

Complexity of tariffs

Tariff complexity is assessed on four criteria: tariff dispersion, the prevalence of tariff peaks, the prevalence of specific tariffs and the number of distinct tariffs. This index is calculated as the simple average of the normalized score of these four criteria.

Border clearance efficiency

Assesses the effectiveness and efficiency of the clearance process by customs and other border control agencies in the eight major trading partners of each country. The scale ranges from 1 (worst) to 5 (best). | 2018 More details about the methodology can be found at https://lpi.worldbank.org/about.

Service trade openness

"Score on the Services Trade Restrictiveness Index (STRI), which assesses the overall openness of the service sector of a country. The scale ranges from 0 (completely open) to 100 (completely closed). The STRI measures openness for five major services sectors (financial services, telecommunications, retail distribution, transportation and professional services) and three modes of supply (cross-border supply of services, supply of services through commercial presence or FDI and temporary presence of natural persons). "

Redundancy costs

Measures the cost of advance notice requirements and severance payments due when terminating a redundant worker, expressed in weeks of salary The average value of notice requirements and severance payments applicable to a worker with 1 year of tenure, 5 years of tenure, and 10 years of tenure is considered.

Hiring and firing practices

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent do regulations allow for the flexible hiring and firing of workers?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent] |

Cooperation in labour-employer relations

Response to the survey question “In your country, how do you characterize labour-employer relations?” [1 = generally confrontational; 7 = generally cooperative]

Flexibility of wage determination

Wage and salaried workers (employees) are those workers who hold the type of jobs defined as “paid employment jobs,” where the incumbents hold explicit (written or oral) or implicit employment contracts that give them a basic remuneration that is not directly dependent upon the revenue of the unit for which they work.

Active labour policies

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent do labour market policies help unemployed people to reskill and find new employment (including skills matching, retraining, etc.)?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]

Workers’ rights

Dimensions of labour protection include civil rights, the right to bargain collectively, the right to strike, the right to associate freely, and access to due process rights. The indicator does not consider firing regulations. Among countries rated as “D5” we distinguish between countries where workers have “non-access to rights” (Greece, Hong Kong SAR, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates) and countries experiencing “breakdown of institution” (Afghanistan, Libya) or murders (Guatemala). We assign a score of 10 to the former case and 3 to the latter. More details about the methodology of the Global Rights Index can be found at https://survey.ituc-csi.org/ITUC-Global-Rights-Index.html.

Ease of hiring foreign labour

Response to the survey question “In your country, how restrictive are regulations related to the hiring of foreign labour?” [1 = highly restrictive; 7 = not restrictive at all]

Internal labour mobility

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent do people move to other parts of the country for= professional reasons?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent] . This indicator does not apply to economies identified as city states: Bahrain, Brunei Darussalam, Hong Kong SAR, Kuwait, Malta, Qatar and Singapore.

Reliance on professional management

Response to the survey question “In your country, who holds senior management positions in companies?” [1 = usually relatives or friends without regard to merit; 7 = mostly professional managers chosen for merit and qualifications]

Pay and productivity

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent is pay related to employee productivity?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]

Female participation in labour force

Illustrates the ratio of the percentage of women aged 15–64 participating in the labour force as wage and salaried workers to the percentage of men aged 15–64 participating in the labour force as wage and salaried workers. Wage and salaried workers (employees) are those workers who hold the type of jobs defined as “paid employment jobs,” where the incumbents hold explicit (written or oral) or implicit employment contracts that give them a basic remuneration that is not directly dependent upon the revenue of the unit for which they work.

Labour tax rate

Labour tax and contributions are the amount of taxes (at any level—federal, state or local) and mandatory contributions on labour paid by the business, expressed as a percentage of commercial profits This measure includes government-mandated contributions paid by the employer to a required private pension fund or workers’ insurance fund. More details about this indicator can be found atThis measure includes government-mandated contributions paid by the employer to a required private pension fund or workers’ insurance fund. More details about this indicator can be found at http://www.doingbusiness.org/Methodology/Paying-Taxes./Methodology/Paying-Taxes.

Domestic credit to private sector

The total value of financial resources provided to the private sector, expressed as a percentage of GDP This indicator is computed as the sum of loans, purchases of non-equity securities, trade credits and other accounts receivable that establish a claim for repayment provided by financial corporations to firms and households.

Financing of SMEs

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent can small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) access finance they need for their business operations through the financial sector?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]

Venture capital availability

Response to the survey question “In your country, how easy is it for start-up entrepreneurs with innovative but risky projects to obtain equity funding?” [1 = extremely difficult; 7 = extremely easy]

Market capitalization

Calculated as the share price of all listed domestic companies multiplied by the number of their outstanding shares. Investment funds, unit trusts and companies whose only business goal is to hold shares of other listed companies are excluded. Data are endof-year values

Insurance premiums

Computed as the sum of life and non-life insurance premium volume divided by GDP. The premium volume is the insurer’s direct premiums earned (if property/casualty) or received (if life/ health) during the previous calendar year.

Soundness of banks

Response to the survey question “In your country, how do you assess the soundness of banks?” [1 = extremely low—banks may require recapitalization; 7 = extremely high—banks are generally healthy with sound balance sheets]

Non-performing loans

The ratio of the value of non-performing loans divided by the total value of the loan portfolio of all banks operating in a country. Defaulting loans are payments of interest and principal past due by 90 days or more. The loan amount recorded as nonperforming includes the gross value of the loan as recorded on the balance sheet, not just the amount that is overdue.

Credit gap

Computed as the difference between the latest “Domestic credit to private sector (as a percentage of GDP)” and its trend. Following the methodology from Bank of International Settlements, the trend value is calculated by applying a Hodrick– Prescott filter to the 15-year time series of the “Domestic credit to private sector (% of GDP)” indicator. More details about the methodology can be found at https://www.bis.org/publ/ qtrpdf/r_qt1403g.htm. Because of the special conversion applied to this indicator, the ranking for this indicator is based on progress scores rather than raw values.

Banks’ regulatory capital ratio

This indicator measures the capital adequacy of deposit takers. It is a ratio of total banks’ regulatory capital (shareholders’ equity, disclosed and undisclosed reserves, revaluation reserves, general provisions and other instruments) to total banks’ assets, weighted according to the risk of these assets. A log transformation is applied to the raw score before it is normalized to a 0-to-100 scale.

Gross domestic product

Gross domestic product (GDP) valued at purchasing power parity in billions of international dollars (constant 2011 prices)

Imports of goods and services

This indicator illustrates the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world, as a percentage of the country’s GDP. Imports include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called “factor services”) and transfer payments.

Cost of starting a business

Cost is recorded as a percentage of the economy’s income per capita. It includes all official fees and fees for legal or professional services if such services are required by law or commonly used in practice. Fees for purchasing and legalizing company books are included if these transactions are required by law. Although VAT registration can be counted as a separate procedure, VAT is not part of the incorporation cost.

Time to start a business

Time is recorded in calendar days. The measure captures the median duration that incorporation lawyers or notaries indicate is necessary in practice to complete a procedure with minimum follow-up with government agencies and no unofficial payments. It is assumed that the minimum time required for each procedure is one day, except for procedures that can be fully completed online, for which the minimum time required is recorded as half a day.

Insolvency recovery rate

The calculation takes into account the outcome—whether the business emerges from the proceedings as a going concern or the assets are sold piecemeal. Then the costs of the proceedings are deducted (1 cent for each percentage point of the value of the debtor’s estate). Finally, the value lost as a result of the time the money remains tied up in insolvency proceedings is taken into account. More details about the methodology can be found at http://www.doingbusiness.org/Methodology/Resolving-Insolvency.

Insolvency regulatory framework

The index is calculated as the sum of the scores on the commencement of proceedings index, management of debtor’s assets index, reorganization proceedings index and creditor participation index. More details about the methodology can be found at http://www.doingbusiness.org/Methodology/ResolvingInsolvency

Attitudes toward entrepreneurial risk

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent do people have an appetite for entrepreneurial risk?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]

Willingness to delegate authority

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent does senior management delegate authority to subordinates?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]

Growth of innovative companies

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent do new companies with innovative ideas grow rapidly?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]

Companies embracing disruptive ideas

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent do companies embrace risky or disruptive business ideas?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]

Diversity of workforce

Response to the survey question “In your country, to what extent do companies have a diverse workforce (e.g. in terms of ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, gender)?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]

State of cluster development

Response to the survey question “In your country, how widespread are well-developed and deep clusters (geographic concentrations of firms, suppliers, producers of related products and services, and specialized institutions in a particular field)?” [1 = non-existent; 7 = widespread in many fields]

International co-inventions

Computed as the sum of the patent family applications with at least one co-inventor located abroad, filed in at least two of the major five (IP5) offices in the World: the European Patent Office (EPO), the Japan Patent Office (JPO), the Korean Intellectual Property Office (KIPO), the State Intellectual Property Office of the People’s Republic of China (SIPO), and the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). Data is extracted from the PATSTAT database by earliest filing date and inventor country, using fractional counts, and expressed in applications per million population. A log transformation is applied to the raw score before it is normalized to a 0 to 100 scale.

Multistakeholder collaboration

Average score of the following three Executive Opinion Survey questions: “In your country, to what extent do people collaborate and share ideas within a company?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]; “In your country, to what extent do companies collaborate in sharing ideas and innovating?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]; “In your country, to what extent do business and universities collaborate on research and development (R&D)?” [1 = do not collaborate at all; 7 = collaborate extensively]

Scientific publications

The Index measures the number of published papers cited in other papers at least h times. The H-index reflects both the number of publications and the number of citations per publication. Only articles, reviews and conference papers are considered. The document universe is defined by those tracked by Scopus, an abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature: scientific journals, books and conference proceedings. A log transformation is applied to the raw score before it is normalized to a 0 to 100 scale.

Patent applications

Computed as the sum of the patent family applications filed in at least two of the major five (IP5) offices in the World: the European Patent Office (EPO), the Japan Patent Office (JPO), the Korean Intellectual Property Office (KIPO), the State Intellectual Property Office of the People’s Republic of China (SIPO), and the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). Data is extracted from the PATSTAT database by earliest filing date and inventor country, using fractional counts and expressed in applications per million population. A log transformation is applied to the raw score before it is normalized to a 0-to-100 scale.

R&D expenditures

Expenditures for research and development are current and capital expenditures (both public and private) on creative work undertaken systematically to increase knowledge—including knowledge of humanity, culture and society—and the use of knowledge for new applications. R&D covers basic research, applied research and experimental development.

Research institutions prominence index

The score is computed as the sum of the inverse ranks of all research institutions in a country included in the SCImago Institutions Rankings (SIR). It comprises private and public universities, governmental agencies, corporate entities and health institutes. A log transformation is applied to the raw score before it is normalized to a 0 to 100 scale. More details about the SIR methodology can be found at https://www.scimagoir.com/ methodology.php.

Buyer sophistication

Response to the survey question “In your country, on what basis do buyers make purchasing decisions?” [1 = based solely on the lowest price; 7 = based on sophisticated performance attributes]

Trademark applications

Number of international trademark applications issued directly or through the Madrid System by country of origin per million population. The residence of the first-named applicant is used to determine the origin of an application. When there are multiple applicants, only the first one is considered. This indicator is based on the concept of “equivalent count”. That is, an application filed at a regional IP office is counted multiple times according to the number of its members. A log transformation is applied to the raw score before it is normalized to a 0 to 100 scale

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